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K.A. Trivedi, M.R. Dana, J.P. Gilbard, J.E. Buring, D.A. Schaumberg; Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Clinically Diagnosed Dry Eye Syndrome in Women . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):811.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To determine the association between dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and risk of dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A total of 32,470 female health professionals aged between 45 and 84 years who provided information on diet and DES were chosen from the 39,876 women participating in the Women's Health Study. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DES was assessed using self-reports of clinically diagnosed DES. We used logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe the relationships of omega-3 fatty acid intake and DES. We also analyzed the relationship between consumption of fish and DES in a similar way. Results: After adjusting for age, other demographic factors, postmenopausal hormone therapy, and total fat intake, the OR (CI) for the highest versus the lowest dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids was 0.83 (0.70-0.98), P for trend=0.04. In addition, we observed a significant association between tuna fish consumption and DES (OR=0.82, CI=0.67-1.00 for 2 to 4 servings/week, and OR=0.34, CI=0.13-0.81 for 5 to 6 four-ounce servings/week versus <2 servings/week; P for trend=0.004). Results were similar in other models additionally controlling for diabetes, hypertension, and connective tissue diseases. Conclusion: These results suggest that women with a higher dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids are at decreased risk of developing DES. Although this is the first study that has evaluated this relationship, and confirmation from other studies is needed, the findings are consistent with clinical observations and postulated biological mechanisms. Thus, further research on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and/or treatment of DES would be of interest.
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