May 2003
Volume 44, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2003
Phosphorylation of Cone Opsins and Binding to Cone Arrestin During Phototransduction in Cone Photoreceptors of Mouse Retina
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • X. Zhu
    Cell and Neurobiology, Keck Sch Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • B. Bruce
    Cell and Neurobiology, Keck Sch Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • A. Li
    Cell and Neurobiology, Keck Sch Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • C. Chen
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Human Genetics Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • A.J. Mears
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • A. Swaroop
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • C.M. Craft
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  X. Zhu, None; B. Bruce, None; A. Li, None; C. Chen, None; A.J. Mears, None; A. Swaroop, None; C.M. Craft, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  Mary D. Allen Endowment, EY00395, EY11115, FFB, RPB, EY03040, EY12224 and GM43582.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2003, Vol.44, 1510. doi:
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      X. Zhu, B. Bruce, A. Li, C. Chen, A.J. Mears, A. Swaroop, C.M. Craft; Phosphorylation of Cone Opsins and Binding to Cone Arrestin During Phototransduction in Cone Photoreceptors of Mouse Retina . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):1510.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Abstract: : Purpose: The shutoff of the rod visual transduction cascade by GRK1 phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin followed by rod arrestin (SAG) binding has been well established; however, deactivation of the cone phototransduction pathway is still not delineated due, in part, to the low abundance of cone photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. We sought to address the potential mechanisms underlying the quenching of the cone phototransduction cascade using animal models rich in cones and/or lacking GRK1. Methods: Nrl-/-Grk1-/- double knockout (KO) mice were created by breeding the Nrl-/- mice (Mears, A.J. et al., 2001. Nature Genet. 29:447-452) with the Grk1-/- mice (Chen, C.-K. et al., 1999. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:3718-3722). Retinas were dissected from dark-adapted mice under infrared light. For the phosphorylation and cone arrestin (CAR) binding/immunoprecipitation experiments, retinas were incubated for 30 min in phosphate-free Krebs buffer containing 1.2 mCi/ml of [32P]H3PO4 in the dark. After washing, retinas were either left in the dark or exposed to bright sunlight (88,000 Lux) for 10 min before processing. Phosphorylation, isoelectric focusing (IEF), immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation were used to examine the retinas. Results: In situ phosphorylation and immunoprecipitation experiments in the Nrl-/- and Nrl-/-Grk1-/- mouse retinas demonstrate that both S and M opsins are phosphorylated at multiple sites following light exposure and that GRK1 is the responsible kinase. Immunofluorescent labeling of mouse retinal sections with GRK1 and mCAR antibodies reveals expression of both proteins in all S and M cones in both wild type and Nrl-/- mouse retinas. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies reveal specific binding of mCAR to light-activated, GRK1-phosphorylated cone opsins. Intriguingly, immunoreactive SAG is co-expressed with mCAR in all photoreceptors that are functionally cones in the Nrl-/- mouse retina; however, it is not associated with either S or M opsin either in the light or in the dark. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate, for the first time in the mammalian retina, that cone opsin phosphorylation and CAR binding are key components involved in the shutoff mechanisms of the cone phototransduction cascade following light-activation.

Keywords: opsins • phosphorylation • signal transduction 
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