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S. Den, K. Shimizu, T. Ikeda; Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and its Relationship With Age, Gender, and Tear Function . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):2469.
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Purpose: We performed prospective study to determine the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) among outpatients. Relationship between the presence of MGD and either age, gender, or tear function was also studied. Methods: Consecutive 244 eyes of 112 patients, aged 21 to 86 years (mean ; 63.5 ± 14.0 years) who had no external ocular diseases or irritating symptoms were examined. The diagnosis of MGD was made based on biomicroscopic findings of lid margin (irregularity of lid margin, vascularlity, plugging of meibomian orifices, retroplacement of mucocutaneous junction, and meibomian gland expression) and the trasnillumination observation of meibomian gland using a light probe (meibography). The subjects also underwent Schirmer's test and tear breakup time measurement. Results: Of 224 eyes, 75 eyes (33.5 %) had MGD, in which 71 eyes (94.7 %) were found in subjects older than 60 years. The mean age of subjects with MGD was significantly older than those who did not have MGD (70.7 ± 7.6 vs. 60.2 ± 15.0, P<0.0001). The incidence of MGD was significantly greater in male than in female (43.6% vs. 26.2%, P=0.0096). However, there was no significant difference in gender regarding the incidence of MGD in subjects older than 65 years. Both Schirmer's test values and tear breakup time showed no association with the presence of MGD. Conclusions: MGD is a common disorder even in asymptomatic subjects. There is a clear prevalence of MGD in elderly subjects. No significant relationship between MGD and tear function was found.
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