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D. Verma, J.V. Rossi, R.R. Lakhanpal, G.Y. Fujii, A.A. Okamura, P. Stemniski, B. Dellon, M.S. Humayun, E. de Juan, Jr.; Vibration Feedback for the Vitreous Cutter Simulator . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3017.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To optimize the virtual vitreoretinal simulator system and to make it a more effective training tool by developing a vibration haptic feedback that mimics the cutting vibrations of a vitrector probe. Methods: The vibrational micromovements of a pneumatic vitrector and then of an electric vitrector were recorded using a small accelerometer and an oscilloscope. The data acquired from the accelerometer was used to evaluate the decay constant and vibration frequency, and then an acceleration equation was integrated twice in order to determine the position function above. Different methods to reproduce the pulses were evaluated including the usage of an electric vitrector using piezoelectric motors with a custom made circuit; an eccentric mass attached to the end of a micro motor; a miniature solenoid actuator fitted in a vitrector handle and the use of a basic stamp circuit to control how long the solenoid is on and off. Results: The pulse rate of the pneumatic cutter varied depending on the cutting speed set on the vitrector control. For the electric vitrector, the pulsations appeared as a constant sinusoid. The piezoelectric motor used to re-create the pulsations of an electric vitrector required too much voltage for its actuation and was abandoned. Using an eccentric mass attached to the end of a micromotor, the pulses of the electric vitrector could be well reproduced and its sine wave could be reasonably matched. Overall, the solenoid and micro motor could simulate well the vibrations from both types of vitrectors, pneumatic and electric, respectively. The pulse rate (for pneumatic) and sine wave (for electric) could be adjusted and fine-tuned using the original data and the vibration properties of both the pneumatic and electric matched their simulators. Conclusions: We were able to simulate the vibrations resulting from both pneumatic and electric vitrectors. Our simulating probes presented very similar pulses measured by accelerometers and oscilloscopes. We hope that this development improves virtual vitreoretinal surgery training.
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