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S.M. Saw, L. Tong, K. Chia, D. Koh, J. Katz, D.T. Tan; The Relationship Between Birth Size and the Results of Refractive Error and Biometry Measurements in Children . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3114.
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Purpose:To examine the relationship of fetal growth parameters with biometry and refraction in Singapore Chinese school children Methods:The results of a cross-sectional study of Chinese children aged 7 to 9 years (n=1,413) from 3 schools in Singapore are presented. Fetal growth parameter information on birth weight, head circumference, length at birth and gestational age were obtained from standard hospital records. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry and biometry measures were made. Results:Across the normal birth weight range (2.0 to 4.9 kg), children with birth weights ≥ 4.0 kilograms (kg) had longer axial lengths (adjusted mean 23.65 mm versus 23.16 mm), compared with children with birth weights < 2.5 kg, after controlling for age, gender, school, height and gestational age. For every 1 cm increment in head circumference at birth, the axial length at age 7 to 9 years was longer by 0.05 mm. For every 1 cm increment in birth length, the axial length was longer by 0.02 mm in multivariate analysis, though this relationship was of borderline significance (p=0.05). Each additional week increase in gestational age resulted in axial lengths that were longer by 0.04 mm, controlling for age, gender, school and height. Children with larger birth weights, head circumferences, birth lengths or gestational ages had deeper vitreous chambers and larger corneal curvature radii; however, there were no significant associations with refraction. Children born with smaller birth weights and head circumferences were more likely to have astigmatism. Conclusions: Children who were born heavier, had larger head sizes or lengths at birth, or who were born more mature had longer axial lengths, deeper vitreous chambers; but no differences in refraction at ages 7 to 9 years, possibly because of the observed compensatory flattening of the cornea.
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