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B.E. Klein, R. Klein, K.E. Lee; Risk Indicators of Glaucoma in Families . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3171.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To determine whether cup to disc ratio (C/D ratio) and intraocular pressure are correlated in family pairs. Population: Beaver Dam Eye Study Participants. Data are from baseline examination, 1988-1990. Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer at the slit lamp according to protocol prior to pupil dilation. Family similarity was assessed using FCOR from the S.A.G.E. software. Optic discs and cups were measured from stereoscopic photographs of the optic disc (DRS field 1) using a template with circles of graded sizes using a specified grading protocol. The vertical measurements are used. Suprathreshold perimetry was performed using a Henson perimeter. Definite glaucoma was defined as two of the following: IOP 22 mg Hg or higher; C/D ratio 0.8 or .2 greater in the "affected" eye; glaucoma visual field defect. Results: Sib-pair and parent-child correlations for intraocular pressure and for optic cup and disc parameters were of similar magnitude and were between 0.16 and 0.31 (highly significant) with heretability estimates ranging from about .32 to .60. First cousin and avuncular pair correlations were of smaller magnitude and were less consistently significant. Sibling-pair correlation for visual field scores was 0.11 (95% CI 0.04, 0.19). There was no evidence of spousal correlations for any measure. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that odds ratio for definite glaucoma given affected relative was 1.55 (0.19, 12.44). Conclusions: Family pair correlations of intraocular pressure and optic cup and disc parameters are compatible with the possibility of strong genetic determinants of these risk indicators of open angle glaucoma. The odds of having glaucoma may be increased in the presence of an affected family member.
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