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R. Varma, B.A. Francis, B. Nguyen, M.R. Wilson, M. Lai, S.P. Azen, LALES Group; Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension in Latinos. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3173.
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Purpose: To determine the age-, and gender-specific prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) in a population-based sample of adult Latinos in Los Angeles, CA. Methods: The LALES is a population-based prevalence study of eye disease among Latinos aged 40 and older. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including Goldmann tonometry, Humphrey visual field testing using either SITA standard or 24-2 full threshold fields, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. If a visual field defect was present, then a confirmatory visual field test was performed. Two glaucoma specialists independently reviewed the charts of each participant. Definite/probable OAG was diagnosed if the participant had evidence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in the presence of an open angle and the absence of secondary causes of glaucoma. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was not included in the definition of definite/probable OAG. Definite/probable OAG was diagnosed only if both glaucoma specialists agreed on the diagnosis. OHT was diagnosed if the IOP was ≥ 21mm Hg without any evidence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Analyses were conducted on a per-person basis with the more advanced eye defining the diagnosis of the person. Frequency distributions and chi-square analyses were performed to summarize the data. Results: 2677 participants who completed the ophthalmologic examination and whose records had been evaluated by both glaucoma specialists were included in this analysis. The mean age of the participants was 54 years (range 40-90 years) and 58% were female. Eighty four persons were diagnosed as having definite/probable OAG and 98 persons were diagnosed as having OHT. The overall prevalence of OAG and OHT was 3.14% and 3.66% respectively. Older individuals were more likely to have OAG compared to younger individuals (p<0.001). There was no age-related difference in the prevalence of OHT (p=0.06). There was no gender-related difference in the prevalence of OAG or OHT (p=0.07, p=0.53 respectively). Seventy-five percent of participants diagnosed with OAG had no previous knowledge that they had OAG Conclusion: The prevalence of open-angle glaucoma in Latinos is higher than Whites and similar to Blacks. A substantial majority of Latinos with OAG are unaware of their disease and thus screening programs are essential in the early diagnosis of this potentially blinding disease.
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