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A. Anton, M. Andrada, A. Mayo, J. Portela; The Segovia Study: Prevalence of Glaucoma and Refractive Errors . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3407.
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Purpose: To assess the prevalence of glaucoma and refractive errors in a Spanish urban population. The final results of the Segovia Epidemiology Study are presented. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study. Target population: Population over 40 years of age living in the city of Segovia (Spain). Subjects: A sample of 569 subjects was randomly selected in a stratified manner according to gender and age groups. Intervention: All participants received a complete ophthalmic examination including refraction, tonometry, stereoscopic photographs of the optic nerve head and supra-threshold visual field (Humphrey's Central-76). Those subjects with positive family history of glaucoma and/or high intraocular pressure (>21 mmHg) and/or abnormal visual field and/or abnormal optic nerve were also evaluated with a gonioscopy lens and a threshold visual field test (Humphrey's 24-2). Two independent observers evaluated the optic nerve photographs and visual fields. The diagnosis of POAG was established when any eye had open angle and glaucomatous optic nerve and glaucomatous visual field. The prevalence of POAG in the population was estimated from the prevalence in the complete sample and the patients already diagnosed at the only glaucoma service in the city (Hospital General de Segovia). The prevalence of refraction error was calculated from the 417 right and phakic eyes with VA> 20/40 included in the study sample. Results: The estimated prevalence and 95% CI in the population was 2.1 % (1.9-2.3%), 1.7% (1.5-1.9%) and 4.2 % (4-4.5%) for POAG, ocular hypertension and family history of glaucoma. The prevalence of POAG was greater in men (2.7%) than in women (1.6%) and increases with increasing age. The estimated prevalence and 95% CI in the population was 27.3% (23.1-31.6), 25.2% (21.1-29.3) and 53% (48.8-58.2) for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Miopia was more frequent in men and hyperopia was more frequent in women and increases with age. Conclusion: The prevalence of POAG in the Spanish population of Segovia over 40 years is 2.1%, similar to the prevalence estimated in the Beaver Dam Study. The most prevalent refraction error in the population is astismatism.
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