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M Leske, SY Wu, B Nemesure, A HennisBarbados Eye Studies Group; Incidence of Nuclear Lens Opacities and Related Factors in the Barbados Eye Studies . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):934.
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Purpose: To present risk factors for the 4-year incidence of nuclear opacities in black participants of the Barbados Eye Studies cohort (85% participation). Methods: The standardized protocol included various measurements, an interview, slit-lamp lens gradings, fundus photography, and an ophthalmologic examination. Associations with the incidence of nuclear opacities (LOCS II N≷2) were evaluated by logistic regression among 2609 persons without nuclear opacities at baseline. Results: The 4-year incidence was 9.2% (241/2609), increasing markedly with age. Risk factors included female gender (RR=1.8), darker iris color (RR=4.9), myopia (RR=2.8), diabetes history (RR=1.6), leaner body mass (RR=0.95), and treatment to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) (RR=2.7), mainly topical beta-blockers. The 59 treated participants had a 3-fold RR of nuclear opacities (RR=3.2; (95% confidence interval: 1.6, 6.6)), as compared to those untreated and with IOP ≤21mmHg. For the subset of participants with IOP≷21mmHg, the risk was 5-fold (RR=5.0 (1.7,15.1)) among those receiving treatment (n=33) vs. those untreated. Risks were also higher for treated persons with open-angle glaucoma. Conclusions: The 4-year risk of nuclear opacities increased with age, female gender, darker iris color, myopia, diabetes, and leaner body mass, indicating similarities with other populations. Use of topical IOP-lowering medications was related to an increased RR of nuclear opacities in this study, a result to be verified in clinical trials evaluating such treatment.
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