December 2002
Volume 43, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   December 2002
Accommodation of Young Adults Using Reading Spectacles
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • HC Howland
    Neurobiology & Behavior Cornell University Ithaca NY
  • JE Kelly
    Neurobiology & Behavior Cornell University Ithaca NY
  • J Shapiro
    Neurobiology & Behavior Cornell University Ithaca NY
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   H.C. Howland, None; J.E. Kelly, None; J. Shapiro, None. Grant Identification: NIH EY02994
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science December 2002, Vol.43, 1901. doi:
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      HC Howland, JE Kelly, J Shapiro; Accommodation of Young Adults Using Reading Spectacles . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):1901.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose: Reading spectacles have been proposed as a method to alleviate the progression of myopia. Their postulated efficacy is thought to be the reduction of hyperopic blur due to under-accommodation in normal reading Yet, to date, little is known about the focusing and fixation behavior of non-presbyopes using reading spectacles. Thus we wished to determine the state of accommodation and convergence of emmetropic, or near emmetropic young adults while reading with +2 and +3D spectacles. Methods:. We measured the accommodation and convergence of subjects reading text from a standard near reading card at 33 cm using a binocular infrared Power Refractor (Multichannel Systems, Reutlingen, Germany), which measured convergence and accommodation (the latter in the vertical meridians) simultaneously. Convergence angles were calibrated individually for each subject. The reading card was mounted slightly above the axis of refraction, but the angle between the refracted axis and the line of sight was generally < 5°. Subjects were given a complete refraction. All subjects were within 1 D of emmetropia on their initial visit. Phorias at far and near (33 cm) were also measured using an IR filter. Results:. Nine subjects exhibited over-accommodation while reading through +2 D spectacles (difference between mean focus with and without spectacles: -.71D ± 0.14 SE, p < 0.0009), and also while reading through +3 D spectacles (-1.37 D ± 0.26 SE, p<0.0007). At the same time subjects were not over-converged (difference in convergence with and without spectacles: +2 D spectacles: -0.44 PD, ±0.75 SE; +3 D spectacles: 0.04 PD ± .69 SE) Conclusion:. Initial results show that reading through positive lenses causes over-accommodation but not over-convergence in young adults. Future work will determine if the accommodative posture changes after wearing reading spectacles for longer durations.

Keywords: 304 accommodation • 397 emmetropization • 407 eye movements: conjugate 

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