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LR Pasquale, J Kang, W Willett, B Rosner, N Faberowski, S Hankinson; Dietary Fat Consumption and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):2944.
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Purpose: To examine the relation between dietary fat consumption and the risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in two cohorts: women in the Nurses Health Study and men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods: Eligible women (N=76,199) and men (N=40,306) were followed from 1980 and 1986 respectively until 1996. Eligible participants were free of POAG and cancer at baseline and were at least 40 years old. Energy-adjusted cumulative averaged fat intakes were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires, while other potential determinants of POAG were assessed on biennial questionnaires. A total of 474 cases of POAG were identified. Cohort-specific multivariate rate ratios [RR] were obtained and then pooled. Results: We found no relation between total fat, animal fat or vegetable fat intake and POAG risk. Furthermore, no relation between saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat intake and POAG risk was noted. We did observe that the omega-3:omega-6 polyunsaturated fat ratio (a ratio reflecting the relative availability of endogenous omega-6 prostaglandins such as prostaglandin F2 alpha), was adversely associated with POAG risk (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.49 [1.02-2.14]; p trend=0.18). The relation was stronger for high-tension POAG (Q5 vs. Q1: RR=1.68 [1.18-2.40]; p trend=0.01). In fact, selected foods with low omega-3:omega-6 ratios, such as potato chips, were found to be associated with a reduced risk of POAG. Conclusion: We observe a positive association between a diet with a high omega-3:omega-6 polyunsaturated fat composition and the risk of developing POAG.
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