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PA Gokhale, B Kharod, JJ Nussbaum, DM Marcus; Ocular Manifestations Associated with Sleep Disorders . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):3428.
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Purpose: To report on a case series of patients diagnosed with sleep disorders after referral based on ocular findings. Methods: Patients seen in an eye clinic at an academic center were referred for sleep studies. Referral was based on ocular findings and a positive sleep history. Sleep studies were performed at an academic sleep center and diagnoses of sleep apnea, sleep hypopnea, and upper airway resistance syndrome were made. Results: Thirty-five patients referred for sleep studies were diagnosed with sleep disorders. Sixteen patients had sleep apnea; seven had sleep hypopnea, and twelve had upper airway resistance syndrome. Ocular findings included branch and central retinal vascular occlusions, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, iris neovascularization, pseudotumor cerebri, and atypical retinal hemorrhages. Glaucoma was common among these patients. Eight patients had the diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma. Conclusion: Sleep histories should be obtained in patients with glaucoma, retinal vascular tortusity, or retinal hemorrhages. Those with positive sleep histories should be referred for sleep studies.
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