December 2002
Volume 43, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   December 2002
Ability of Periorbitally Applied Anti-glare Products to Improve Contrast Sensitivity in Conditions of Sunlight Exposure
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • BM DeBroff
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science Yale University School of Medicine New Haven CT
  • P Pahk
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science Yale University School of Medicine New Haven CT
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   B.M. DeBroff, None; P. Pahk, None. Grant Identification: none
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science December 2002, Vol.43, 3851. doi:
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      BM DeBroff, P Pahk; Ability of Periorbitally Applied Anti-glare Products to Improve Contrast Sensitivity in Conditions of Sunlight Exposure . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):3851.

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Abstract

Abstract: : Purpose: To determine if glare reducing products such as EyeBlack and No Glare stickers marketed to athletes for reduction of glare actually improve contrast sensitivity during sunlight exposure. Methods: 46 students for a total of 92 eyes were tested for contrast sensitivity using a Pelli Robson Contrast Chart. Each subject served as an internal control and was initially tested using no product. Each was then tested again after being randomized to either application of Eyeblack grease, Vaseline grease, or No Glare stickers on the skin at the level of the infraorbital rim. A second Pelli Robson Contrast Chart was used after application of the agent to avoid familiarity upon retesting. All testing was performed outdoors in conditions of direct and unobstructed sunlight exposure to the subject. Students requiring eyeglass prescription were not included in the study because of the effect of the glasses on glare testing. Results: ANOVA testing revealed a significant difference between EyeBlack grease, Vaseline grease, and sticker using both eyes (p=0.0182). No statistical difference was found between right and left eye alone or in a combination of the right and left eyes between the 3 groups. A Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed to test pairwise difference and showed that the statistically significant difference was between EyeBlack grease and No Glare sticker. Paired T test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between cotrol and EyeBlack grease (p=0.0364) as well as by combining the right and left eye (p=0.0208). There was no statistical difference found between control and each treatment group (EyeBlack, Vaseline, sticker) for the right or left eye alone. Conclusion: EyeBlack grease was found to be statistically superior in improving contrast sensitivity in conditions of sunlight exposure as compared to control and to No Glare sticker in testing of both eyes. Further testing with larger sample sizes are needed to determine if glare reduction occurs in a manner that would reduce sun glare in actual athletic conditions.

Keywords: 368 contrast sensitivity • 332 brightness and lightness • 500 optical properties 
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