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Ga Bin Park, Daejin Kim, Yeong Seok Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Hook Sun, Kug-Hwan Roh, Jae Wook Yang, Dae Young Hur; Regulation of ADAM10 and ADAM17 by Sorafenib Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Epstein-Barr Virus–Infected Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(9):5162-5173. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-16058.
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The a-disintegrin-and-metalloprotease (ADAM) family proteins are widely expressed in the different layers of the retina throughout development. The effect of ADAM proteins on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) or AMD is yet to be elucidated. In this study we used Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE) cells to investigate how sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, modulates ADAM proteins to control EMT.
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and related mechanisms in EBV-infected ARPE cells were determined by RT-PCR, Western blot, invasion assay, ELISA assay, and gene silencing with siRNA.
Mesenchymal-like ARPE/EBV cells exhibited considerably increased cellular migration and invasion compared with ARPE cells and produced EMT-related cytokines. Sorafenib significantly inhibited production of TGF-β1, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α and blocked the activation of migration-related signaling molecules, such as HIF-1α, p-STAT3, MMP2, and Ang-1. The expression of mature ADAM10, ADAM17, and cleaved Notch 1 proteins in ARPE/EBV cells was downregulated after treatment with sorafenib through the regulatory activity of nardilysin (NRD-1). Gene silencing of NRD-1 in ARPE/EBV cells attenuated secretion of EMT-related cytokines and expression of ADAM10 and 17 and upregulated epithelial markers.
Sorafenib controls the mesenchymal characteristics of EBV-infected ARPE cells. Nardilysin and ADAM family proteins might be new targets for the prevention or control of EMT in retinal diseases.
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