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Raffaele Parrozzani, Maurizio Clementi, Luisa Frizziero, Giacomo Miglionico, Pierdavide Perrini, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Olympia Kotsafti, Francesco Comacchio, Eva Trevisson, Enrica Convento, Stefano Fusetti, Edoardo Midena; In Vivo Detection of Choroidal Abnormalities Related to NF1: Feasibility and Comparison With Standard NIH Diagnostic Criteria in Pediatric Patients. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(10):6036-6042. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-16053.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) imaging acquisition in a large sample of consecutive pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NF1-related choroidal abnormalities as a diagnostic criterion of the disease, and to compare this criterion with other standard National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria.
A total of 140 consecutive pediatric patients (0–16 years old) affected by NF1 (at least two diagnostic criteria), 59 suspected (a single diagnostic criterion), and 42 healthy subjects (no diagnostic criterion) were consecutively included. Each patient underwent genetic, dermatologic, and ophthalmologic examination to evaluate the presence/absence of each NIH diagnostic criterion. The presence of NF1-related choroidal abnormalities was investigated using NIR confocal ophthalmoscopy. Two masked operators assessed Lisch nodules and NF1-related choroidal abnormalities.
Neurofibromatosis type 1–related choroidal abnormalities were detected in 72 affected (60.5%) and 1 suspected (2.4%) child. No healthy subject had choroidal abnormalities. Feasibility rate of this sign was 82%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of NF1-related choroidal abnormalities were 0.60, 0.97, 0.98, and 0.46, respectively. Compared with standard NIH criteria, the presence of NF1-related choroidal abnormalities was the third parameter for positive predictive value and the fourth for sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value. Compared with Lisch nodules, NF1-related choroidal abnormalities were characterized by higher specificity and positive predictive value. The interoperator agreement for Lisch nodules and NF1-related choroidal abnormalities was 0.67 (substantial) and 0.97 (almost perfect), respectively. The use of this sign moved one patient from the suspected to the affected group (0.5%).
Neurofibromatosis type 1–related choroidal abnormalities represent a new diagnostic sign in NF1 children. The main advantage of this sign seems the theoretical possibility to anticipate NF1 diagnosis, whereas the main obstacle is the cooperation required by very young patients.
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