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Hongli Yang, Ruojin Ren, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Vincent Libertiaux, Crawford Downs, Stuart K. Gardiner, Claude F. Burgoyne; The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(13):7661-7678. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17624.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components.
Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals.
Overall EG eye change was significant (P < 0.0026) and animal-specific EG eye change most frequent, for five phenomena (number of EG eyes and range of animal-specific change): posterior laminar deformation (21, −29 to −437 μm), laminar thickening (11, 20–73 μm) and thinning (3, −23 to −31 μm), scleral canal expansion (17, 20–139 μm), outward anterior (16, −16 to −124 μm) and posterior (17, −22 to −279 μm) laminar insertion migration, and peripapillary scleral bowing (11, 21–77 μm). Experimental glaucoma versus control eye laminar thickness differences were bimodal in behavior, being thickened in most EG eyes demonstrating the least deformation and less thickened or thinned in most EG eyes demonstrating the greatest deformation.
Our postmortem studies retrospectively identify five connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy.
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