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Ana I. Arroba, Ángela M. Valverde; Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Improves IGF-I Receptor Signaling and Protects Against Inflammation-Induced Gliosis in the Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(13):8031-8044. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17234.
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Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling mediates retinal growth and survival and its failure may contribute to aggravate diabetic retinopathy (DR). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively modulates IGF-IR signaling, but its involvement in inflammation during DR remains unknown. We investigated whether PTP1B participates in the cross-talk between proinflammatory signaling pathways and IGF-IR–mediated signaling in the retina.
661W photoreceptors or mouse retinal explants were treated with TNFα, IL6, and IL1β. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling cascade was evaluated in the absence or presence of PTP1B. db/db mice were used to test a PTP1B inhibitor in retinal gliosis.
661W retinal cells and retinal explants responded to IGF-I by inducing IGF-IR tyrosine (13-fold) and Akt phosphorylations (7- and 3-fold for serine 473 and threonine 308, respectively). Cytokines triggered early activation of stress kinases (c-jun [NH2] terminal kinase [JNK] and p38 MAPK), resulting in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine 307 phosphorylation that precedes its degradation. Pretreatment of 661W cells or retinal explants with cytokines upregulated PTP1B protein levels (1.45- and 4.5-fold, respectively), induced IRS1 degradation and decreased IGF-I–mediated IGF-IR/Akt phosphorylation. Silencing or deficiency in PTP1B ameliorated the negative effects of cytokines on IGF-IR signaling. Cytokines increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in retinal explants by 4.5-fold, this response being reduced by 2-fold with a PTP1B inhibitor. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B protein levels increased by 3-fold in retinas from db/db mice and its inhibition reduced gliosis.
Targeting PTP1B might be useful for modulating IGF-I effects in retinal cells during DR.
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