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Irene Lee-Rivera, Edith López, Miriam Gabriela Carranza-Pérez, Ana María López-Colomé; PKC-ζ Regulates Thrombin-Induced Proliferation of Human Müller Glial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(8):3769-3779. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-19574.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the effect of thrombin on the proliferation of human Müller glial cells (MCs) and define the possible signaling mechanisms involved in this process.
Protease-activated receptor (PARs 1–4) expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blot in the MIO–M1 Müller cell line (MC). Müller cell proliferation was assessed by the MTS reduction method. Wound healing and immunoreactivity to Ki67 antigen were used to dissociate proliferation and migration. Cell migration was examined using transwell migration assays. The involvement of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation/activation in thrombin-induced human MC proliferation was determined by Western blot. Intracellular pathways involved in ERK1/2 activation were analyzed by pharmacologic inhibition.
We first demonstrated that human MCs express PARs 1 to 4. Our results show that thrombin dose-dependently stimulates MC proliferation by 44%, with a calculated Ec50 of 0.86 nM. Müller cell maximal proliferation required sustained thrombin treatment for 72 hours, in contrast to our previous findings in RPE cells showing maximal thrombin-induced proliferation at 24-hour stimulation. We demonstrate that thrombin induces MC cell proliferation through the Ras-independent activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, under the control of protein kinase C (PKC)-ζ.
The breakdown of blood–retina barrier (BRB) exposes MCs to thrombin contained in serum. Our findings further strengthen the critical involvement of thrombin in the development of proliferative retinopathies and may provide pharmacologic targets for the prevention or treatment of these diseases.
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