September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Inter-Scorer and Test-Retest Reliability of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in School-Age Children
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Erin M Harvey
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
    College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucsn, Arizona, United States
  • Tina K Green
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • Kathleen M. Mohan
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • Marjean T Kulp
    College of Optometry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Amy Davis
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • Joseph M Miller
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
    College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucsn, Arizona, United States
  • John Daniel Twelker
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
    College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucsn, Arizona, United States
  • Irene Campus
    Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Erin Harvey, None; Tina Green, None; Kathleen Mohan, None; Marjean Kulp, None; Amy Davis, None; Joseph Miller, None; John Twelker, None; Irene Campus, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH/NEI Grant U10-EY13153 and Research to Prevent Blindness
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 1550. doi:
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      Erin M Harvey, Tina K Green, Kathleen M. Mohan, Marjean T Kulp, Amy Davis, Joseph M Miller, John Daniel Twelker, Irene Campus; Inter-Scorer and Test-Retest Reliability of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in School-Age Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):1550.

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      © 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

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Abstract

Purpose : Assess inter-scorer and test-retest reliability of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 6th Edition (VMI) (Pearson Clinical Assessment, Bloomington MN).

Methods : VMI was administered to 163 3rd–8th grade students twice on separate days. All tests were scored by two research assistants who received extensive training in scoring, and 50 tests were also scored by a more experienced scorer. Reliability analyses for inter-scorer and test-retest differences using raw scores included 95% limits of agreement (LOA) (mean difference +/- 1.96 SD), Bland-Altman plots, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests comparing median differences to 0 (assessment of bias) and Spearman correlation.

Results : Summary results are provided in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2. The mean inter-test interval was 63.38 days, SD 33.98. The 95% LOA indicated that most scores agreed within approximately +/- 3 for the experienced scorer and the two trained scorers with no significant bias in scoring (median difference not significantly different from 0). For comparisons between the two scorers, most scores agreed within approximately +/- 4 points, with one scorer tending to give higher scores. For test-retest comparisons, 95% LOA indicated that most scores agreed within approximately +/- 6 points, with no significant bias. Correlations were strong for inter-scorer agreement and moderate for test-retest agreement (all p values <0.001).

Conclusions : Slightly wider 95% LOA for the two trained scorers than in comparisons between the trained scorers and the experience scorer suggest that precision of results may vary with scorer experience. The 95% LOA for test-retest results provide an expected range of change in scores between test and retest that may be useful for determining the amount of change considered to be meaningful for this test. Most previous research has assessed VMI reliability using correlation, which assesses the relation between two measures but does not assess measurement agreement. Further research on test-retest reliability using Bland-Altman methods on additional populations is recommended, particularly if the test is to be used to detect changes due to intervention.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

 

 

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