September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Vision In Preschoolers - Hyperopia In Preschoolers (VIP - HIP) study: Effect of hyperopia and near visual functions on early literacy, visual-motor integration, visual perception and attention
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Maxwell Pistilli
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Maureen G Maguire
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Gui-Shuang Ying
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Marjean T Kulp
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Elise B Ciner
    Salus University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • T. Rowan Candy
    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Jill Pentimonti
    American Institute of Research, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
  • Graham E Quinn
    Childrens Hosp of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Bruce D Moore
    New England Coll of Optometry, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Lynn Cyert
    Northeastern State University College of Optometry, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Maxwell Pistilli, None; Maureen Maguire, None; Gui-Shuang Ying, None; Marjean Kulp, None; Elise Ciner, None; T. Rowan Candy, None; Jill Pentimonti, None; Graham Quinn, None; Bruce Moore, None; Lynn Cyert, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH/NEI R01EY021141
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 1532. doi:
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      Maxwell Pistilli, Maureen G Maguire, Gui-Shuang Ying, Marjean T Kulp, Elise B Ciner, T. Rowan Candy, Jill Pentimonti, Graham E Quinn, Bruce D Moore, Lynn Cyert; Vision In Preschoolers - Hyperopia In Preschoolers (VIP - HIP) study: Effect of hyperopia and near visual functions on early literacy, visual-motor integration, visual perception and attention. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):1532.

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      © 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

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Abstract

Purpose : To evaluate the effect of hyperopia and near visual functions on educational tests of early literacy, visual-motor integration, visual perception and attention in children.

Methods : Children aged 4 or 5, attending preschool, and without prior glasses wear were enrolled. Cycloplegic refraction confirmed either hyperopia (≥3D to ≤6D in the most hyperopic meridian, astigmatism ≤1.5D, anisometropia ≤1D) or emmetropia (hyperopia ≤1D, astigmatism, anisometropia, and myopia <1D). Near visual functions measured were: binocular visual acuity (VA, crowded HOTV), stereoacuity (PASS), and accommodative response (Grand Seiko refractometer). Educational tests performed were: Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL), Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), Beery Visual Perception Test (VP), Leiter R Test of Attention, Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) Expressive and Receptive Attention. For each test, multiple linear regression models were built with hyperopia (yes/no), sphere, VA, accommodative lag, stereoacuity, interaction terms for hyperopia and visual functions, age, race, sex and education level of primary caregiver. Visual functions were modeled as continuous, and stepwise backward elimination was used to drop non-significant (p>0.05) vision variables; demographic features were retained in all models.

Results : 243 hyperopic (+3.8 ±0.8D) and 248 emmetropic (+0.5 ±0.5D) children completed all testing (Table 1). Individually, hyperopia and worse near visual functions were generally associated with worse scores on all educational tests. In final linear regression models, there was no significant effect of presence or degree of hyperopia or accommodative lag on any educational tests. Worse near VA was significantly associated with worse scores for each educational test and worse stereoacuity was significantly associated with worse VMI, VP, and Leiter scores.

Conclusions : Within multivariate models, worse near VA was associated with worse scores in each educational test, and worse stereoacuity was associated with worse VMI, VP and Leiter scores. Hyperopic children have worse educational test scores and are more likely to have decreased visual functions, but hyperopia alone did not affect test scores.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

 

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