September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
The Association of Calcium Intake with Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Alanna Kira Tisdale
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Elvira Agron
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Sarah B. Sunshine
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Traci E Clemons
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Frederick Ferris
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Emily Y Chew
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Alanna Tisdale, None; Elvira Agron, None; Sarah Sunshine, None; Traci Clemons, None; Frederick Ferris, None; Emily Chew, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 18. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Alanna Kira Tisdale, Elvira Agron, Sarah B. Sunshine, Traci E Clemons, Frederick Ferris, Emily Y Chew; The Association of Calcium Intake with Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):18.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To evaluate the association of dietary and supplemental calcium intake with progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods : Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants (n=4751) were retrospectively analyzed for the association of calcium intake and progression to intermediate AMD (large drusen/pigmentary changes) or late AMD (neovascular or geographic atrophy (GA)). Calcium intake (dietary and supplements) was estimated based on responses to a baseline dietary questionnaire. Baseline and annual fundus photographs were graded at a reading center using a standardized protocol to assess the progression of AMD. Analyses were conducted using the Cox regression models with the Wei-Lin-Weissfield technique and adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking, and education. The analyses of the dietary intake were calorie-restricted, from 677 to 1994 kcal and 794 to 2771 kcal, for females and males, respectively.

Results : AREDS participants (median age: 69 years, 56% female) were followed from 1992 to 2005 (1992 to 2001 as a clinical trial). The participants in the highest quintile of dietary calcium intake had a lower risk of developing AMD than those in the lowest quintile: late AMD (HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.59, 0.90), central GA (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.88), and neovascular AMD (HR: 0.78, 95% CI, 0.61, 1.00). The participants in the highest tertile of supplementary calcium intake had a lower risk of developing neovascular AMD when compared with those who did not take calcium supplements (HR: 0.68 95 %CI: 0.48, 0.95). When stratified by gender, women in the highest quintile of dietary intake of calcium had a lower risk of development late AMD (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The highest tertile of calcium supplementation in women was associated with the reduction in the progression to neovascular AMD (HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) compared with those in the lowest tertile. Similar findings were found in men for dietary calcium while too few men took calcium supplements to allow for analyses.

Conclusions : In the AREDS participant population, higher levels of dietary and supplementary calcium intake were associated with a lower incidence of progression to late AMD. This association warrants further investigation.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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