September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Tear fluid proteome reveals inflammation and immune response proteins as potential predictive biomarkers of the effects of desiccating stress and dry eye treatments
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ulla Aapola
    Ophthalmology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  • Janika Nättinen
    Ophthalmology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  • Antti Jylhä
    Ophthalmology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  • Jose Pinto-Fraga
    IOBA Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiologia Aplicada, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    CIBER-BBN Biomedical Research Networking Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Zaragoza, Spain
  • Alberto López-Miguel
    IOBA Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiologia Aplicada, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    VISIÓN I+D S.L., Valladolid, Spain
  • María J González-García
    IOBA Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiologia Aplicada, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    CIBER-BBN Biomedical Research Networking Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Zaragoza, Spain
  • Amalia Enriquez-De-Salamanca
    IOBA Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiologia Aplicada, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    CIBER-BBN Biomedical Research Networking Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Zaragoza, Spain
  • Michael E Stern
    Baylor College of Medicine, Mission Viejo, California, United States
    Allergan, Irvine, California, United States
  • Margarita Calonge
    IOBA Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiologia Aplicada, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    CIBER-BBN Biomedical Research Networking Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Zaragoza, Spain
  • Hannu M T Uusitalo
    Ophthalmology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    Tays Eye Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
  • Roger W Beuerman
    Ophthalmology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Ulla Aapola, None; Janika Nättinen, None; Antti Jylhä, None; Jose Pinto-Fraga, None; Alberto López-Miguel, VISION I + D (E); María González-García, None; Amalia Enriquez-De-Salamanca, None; Michael Stern, Allergan (E); Margarita Calonge, Allergan (C); Hannu Uusitalo, Allergan (F); Roger Beuerman, Allergan (C)
  • Footnotes
    Support  The Finnish funding agency of innovation grant 66/31/2012, Competitive Research Funding of Tampere University Hospital grant 9S071, Elsemay Björn Fund
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 397. doi:
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      Ulla Aapola, Janika Nättinen, Antti Jylhä, Jose Pinto-Fraga, Alberto López-Miguel, María J González-García, Amalia Enriquez-De-Salamanca, Michael E Stern, Margarita Calonge, Hannu M T Uusitalo, Roger W Beuerman; Tear fluid proteome reveals inflammation and immune response proteins as potential predictive biomarkers of the effects of desiccating stress and dry eye treatments. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):397.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To determine if tear protein biomarkers would predict the effects of topical steroid treatment and desiccating stress (DS) in dry eye (DE) patients.

Methods : In a randomized double-masked controlled clinical trial (Pinto-Fraga, Ophthalmology 2015), patients (n=28) were treated topically with either 0.1% fluorometholone (FML) or polyvinyl alcohol (PA). Tear samples were collected at baseline (V1) and after 21-day treatment period (before (V2) and after (V3) a 2-hour exposure to DS in a controlled environment laboratory) with 1μl capillary tubes. Proteins were analyzed for library generation and relative quantification of expression levels in 2.6 μg of tear proteins was carried out by NanoLC-MSTripleTOF using SWATH acquisition. Ocular surface integrity (corneal and conjunctival staining) was selected as the key DE-related sign along with proteomic data. Statistical analysis was performed with R software.

Results : A protein identification library consisting of >870 proteins (FDR 1 %) was established. In total 770 proteins were identified and relatively quantified. Protein baseline values and treatment, FML or PA, were used to predict the DE-related sign changes between initial and visits before and after a 2-hour controlled adverse environment exposure. We identified 32 potentially predictive proteins for conjunctival staining change (V1-V2, treatment effect) and 73 for V2-V3-change (DS effect). Two tear proteins, lysozyme C LYZ (V1-V2: R2=0.44, V2-V3: R2=0.56) and prolactin-inducible protein PIP (V1-V2: R2=0.441, V2-V3: R2=0.506), were found in common between the two results (both proteins had p-value<0.001 for the regression models). When the baseline protein expression value was higher, conjunctival staining of FML-treated patients was predicted to decrease more than in equivalent PA-treated patients. We also identified 22 potentially predictive proteins for corneal staining change between baseline and V2 and 14 of these proteins were immunoglobulins connected to complement activation.

Conclusions : Using only a 1μl sample, we reliably identified 770 proteins from each analysed sample for DE patients. Potential biomarkers were identified for predicting treatment effects with desiccating stress in DE patients.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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