September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Validation and Repeatability of the Paul Harris Stereotest
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Liat Gantz
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Ariela Gordon-Shaag
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Wedad Sheety
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Almaza Haddad
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Doreen Hallon
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Tzadok Parnas
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • David Markov
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Einat Shneor
    Optometry and Vision Science, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, Israel
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Liat Gantz, None; Ariela Gordon-Shaag, None; Wedad Sheety, None; Almaza Haddad, None; Doreen Hallon, None; Tzadok Parnas, Visionix (E); David Markov, None; Einat Shneor, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Visionix Ltd.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 1502. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Liat Gantz, Ariela Gordon-Shaag, Wedad Sheety, Almaza Haddad, Doreen Hallon, Tzadok Parnas, David Markov, Einat Shneor; Validation and Repeatability of the Paul Harris Stereotest. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):1502.

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      © 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

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Abstract

Purpose : The Paul Harris (PH) Randot test is a vectographic booklet for measuring stereopsis that, similarly to the TNO stereotest but unlike the Titmus stereofly and traditional Randot (tRandot) tests, is devoid of monocular cues. This prospective observational study investigated the intra-test repeatability and inter-test agreement for the PH Randot test compared with the other clinical stereotests.

Methods : Seventy subjects (mean age: 24±7, range: 18-53, 54 female) with normal binocular vision were measured three times with each stereotest, in random order. Thirty subjects were re-measured after a week. Bland-Altman (B-A) analysis and a repeated measures ANOVA with one factor, determined the interchangeability between the PH Randot and other stereotests by determining the mean difference between the measurements of two stereotests (mdiff-tests) and their confidence intervals. Intra-test repeatability was assessed by comparing the mean difference between the 1st and 2nd measurements (mdiff-measurements) and their standard deviation (stdevmeasurements).

Results : Mean stereothreshold measurements differed significantly between the TNO and PHRandot and the other booklets (mean stereothresholds- TNO: 51.3±14.5", Stereofly: 36.0±15.5", tRandot: 33.6±16.8",PHRandot: 22.7±5.7"; F(df=3,69)=77.8, p<0.0001, Tukey HSD<0.01). The Titmus and tRandot were not significantly different from one another. B-A analysis found that the PHRandot yielded systematically lower thresholds in subjects with stereopsis lower than 40", which may be due to a difference in step sizes between the booklets. Nevertheless, the mdiff-tests between the PHRandot and the tRandot (11") and Titmus (13") was lower than the minimal step size (20") and over 94% of the observations were within ±20" of each other. This was not the case for the TNO (mPHRandot-TNO=28"). The comparison between the 1st and 2nd measurement sessions yielded the smallest mdiff and stdevmeasurements for the PH Randot test (PHRandot= 2.72” ± 11.4”, tRandot = 10.61± 40.8, Titmus= 18.28 ± 33.3, TNO=-14.39 ± 68.1), indicating better repeatability.

Conclusions : Normal subjects with above normal stereopsis often achieve lower thresholds using the PHRandot stereotest than with other stereotests. Nevertheless, the PHRandot test can be used interchangeably with the tRandot and Titmus tests but not with the TNO test. The PHRandot yielded the best inter-test repeatability, indicating more precision.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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