September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Prevalence of eye disease and reading difficulty in an inner city elementary school population - Preliminary results from the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study (BREDS)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Megan Collins
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Lucy I Mudie
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Robert Slavin
    Johns Hopkins School of Education, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Roisin Corcoran
    Johns Hopkins School of Education, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Josephine Owoeye
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Dolly Shuo-Teh Chang
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Michael Repka
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • David S Friedman
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Megan Collins, None; Lucy Mudie, None; Robert Slavin, None; Roisin Corcoran, None; Josephine Owoeye, None; Dolly Chang, None; Michael Repka, None; David Friedman, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Funding support from Bob and Diane Levy of Chicago, Illinois
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 1536. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Megan Collins, Lucy I Mudie, Robert Slavin, Roisin Corcoran, Josephine Owoeye, Dolly Shuo-Teh Chang, Michael Repka, David S Friedman; Prevalence of eye disease and reading difficulty in an inner city elementary school population - Preliminary results from the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study (BREDS). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):1536.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose : Reading is a fundamental skill taught during early elementary school education. Students who experience difficulty reading are at risk for long-term difficulty with academic achievement. Little is known about what vision problems affect an inner city grade school population with and without reading difficulty.

Methods : Second and third grade students at 12 Baltimore City public schools whose parents signed consent underwent baseline and follow up reading assessments and eye exams.

The eye exam included cycloplegic refraction. Children with refractive error were given glasses (hyperopia ≥ 1D, myopia ≤0.5D, astigmatism ≥ 1.5D) and children with convergence insufficiency were prescribed vergence exercises. Reading assessments included Woodcock-Johnson III Tests, receptive vocabulary tests and Gray Oral reading assessment.

Results : 317 children participated, including 192 second and 125 third graders (mean age = 7.9 y) with 84.5% identified as African American. Glasses were worn by 6.8% at baseline. The most common eye findings were refractive error (hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism) and convergence insufficiency (9.5%). Glasses were provided to 194 students (61%). Applying AAO preferred practice guidelines, 68 children (21.5%) would have been prescribed glasses [1].

At baseline, a strong negative relationship was found between distance (p<.001) and near vision (p<.005), measured in logMar, and performance on Passage Comprehension, controlling for grade, gender, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary test scores. Hyperopia was associated with worse baseline reading scores. The effect sizes were -0.67 for Letter-Word, -0.61 for Passage Comprehension, and -0.37 for Word Attack.

Conclusions : Significant refractive error was present in 21.5 % of students. It was being corrected in only a small proportion of inner-city elementary school children. While many students had been previously evaluated, only 6.8% were wearing correction. Poor baseline visual acuity and hyperopia were associated with reduced reading achievement. Follow-up vision and reading assessments are planned one year after enrollment and will determine if study-provided glasses and vergence exercises affected reading performance.

1. American Academy of Ophthalmology Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel. PPP Guidelines:Pediatric Eye Evaluations. San Francisco: AAO;2012.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×