September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Optokinetic Reflex: a Novel Screening Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorders
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Stanley Park
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Sarah Hilkert
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Julie Lange
    Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Andrew Hendershot
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Amit Tandon
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Mark Slabaugh
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Julie Meier
    Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Stanley Park, None; Sarah Hilkert, None; Julie Lange, None; Andrew Hendershot, None; Amit Tandon, None; Mark Slabaugh, None; Julie Meier, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 1548. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to Subscribers Only
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Stanley Park, Sarah Hilkert, Julie Lange, Andrew Hendershot, Amit Tandon, Mark Slabaugh, Julie Meier; Optokinetic Reflex: a Novel Screening Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):1548.

      Download citation file:


      © 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose : Autism spectrum disorders are pediatric developmental disorders that detrimentally affect social interaction and communication. Early diagnosis and subsequent intervention is critical for improved behavioral outcomes. Current diagnostic measures such as M-CHAT are subjective and place responsibility for diagnosis on parents and caregivers. Eye movement abnormalities associated with cerebellar pathology are well established in autistic patients. These include changes in gaze holding, saccades and smooth pursuits. The optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) drum is an easily adapted tool that can examine these particular movements. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of the OKN reflex as a possible objective screening tool for autism spectrum disorders.

Methods : We compared the OKN response of 6 children aged 3 to 5 years with autism spectrum disorders and 17 age-matched controls. Eye movements were analyzed using a video recording of eye movements taken from a smartphone which was simultaneously displaying an OKN stimulus. The video recordings were sent to three masked ophthalmologists who gave a response of either "atypical" or "typical." Findings were recorded as "typical" if the child demonstrated a classic OKN reflex- slow pursuit in direction of stripe movement with a fast reflex saccade. Findings were recorded as "atypical" if the child demonstrated lack of gaze fixation, absence of stereotypic behavior or no response.

Results : OKN response analysis resulted in a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 82.3%. The positive predictive value was 57.14% and the negative predictive value was 87.50%. Interobserver correlation was 0.475 using a mean of paired Cohen’s kappa.

Conclusions : OKN response may be an objective screening tool that can serve as a useful diagnostic aid for autism spectrum disorder. Specificity and negative predictive value were relatively high while interobserver correlation was moderate. A larger sample size and training for screeners may improve the reproducibility of this technique.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×