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Kristin Hirabayashi, Joy Bhosai, Yen C Hsia, Mary Qiu, Shan C Lin; Natural Progression of Optic Nerve and Visual Field Parameters in Young Myopes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):2599.
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© 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Myopia is a risk factor for developing open angle glaucoma, however, glaucoma is challenging to diagnose in myopic patients since they may present with features of glaucoma at baseline. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate whether myopic young adults with risk factors for glaucoma such as abnormal optic nerve features and/or elevated IOP, progress in severity over a period of 3 years.
120 young adults, ages 21 through 40, were examined at baseline. 47 were male and 73 were female. 79 participants returned for follow up 3 years later. Participants were categorized as myopic (spherical equivalent of -2.5 diopters or more) or emmetropic and examined at baseline with Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) SITA 24-2, and clinical exam. These same measures were repeated 3 years later. None of the study participants were previously taking nor currently taking medication for glaucoma during the study. A one-tail paired t-test was used to compare the cup-to-disc (C/D) area ratios, average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) at baseline and follow up.
Using HRT data, the C/D area ratio enlarged in the emmetropic group from 0.20 to 0.23 (P < 0.05) but there was no significant change in the C/D area ratio in the myopic group. Using OCT data, there was no significant change in the C/D area ratio in either group. There was no significant change in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using HRT or OCT for either group. Intraocular pressure increased from 12.76 to 14.24 in the emmetropic group (P < 0.05) but there was no significant change for the myopic group. There were no significant changes in HVF exams for either group. Overall, myopic young adults with risk factors for glaucoma did not demonstrate significant progression over a 3 year period.
Young myopic adults, who often have exam findings concerning for glaucoma, did not demonstrate progression of parameters that are associated with glaucoma. There is likely low risk among myopes in this age range for glaucomatous progression.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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