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Gillian C Shaw, Richard R Dubielzig, Leandro B C Teixeira; Anterior chamber collapse syndrome is caused by presumed early life trauma in canines and felines. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3055.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
We performed a retrospective study to characterize the clinical and pathological details of a series of canine and feline globes diagnosed with anterior chamber collapse syndrome.
The Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) database was mined for feline and canine cases of anterior chamber collapse syndrome. Case histories, clinical presentations and gross and histopathological lesions were reviewed and summarized.
There were 75 canine and 64 feline cases of anterior chamber collapse syndrome in the COPLOW collection. The average age at enucleation was 2.0 years (range 0.1-12) for canines and 2.6 years (range 0.1-15.5) for felines with the majority being less than 1 year of age (46.7 and 43.5% for canines and felines respectively). Some of the globes had lesions present at the time of eyelid opening and when known, often had a long history of ocular abnormalities. A range of breeds were affected from both species and approximately equal numbers of males and females, intact and altered and left and right globes were affected. Common presenting clinical signs included alterations in globe size (buphthalmic 62.7%, phthisical 5.3%), corneal surface disease and glaucoma. Grossly, alterations in globe size, collapse of the anterior chamber, aphakia or cataract, and retinal detachment were common. Common histopathological lesions included corneal surface disease, breaks in Descemet's membrane, anterior chamber collapse, broad anterior synechia, cataract (when present), retinal detachment and glaucoma.
Anterior chamber collapse syndrome is a disease of younger animals the lesions of which include buphthalmos, corneal surface disease, breaks in Descemet's membrane and resulting broad anterior synechia, aphakia and retinal detachment. This constellation of lesions supports the theory of a traumatic event leading to corneal rupture and anterior chamber collapse as the most plausible cause. The cases whose ocular abnormalities were documented at eyelid opening, suggests the trauma occurred in the early postnatal period when the neonate would have still been under the care of the dam, suggesting the dam may have caused the trauma. Those cases in which documentation of the ocular abnormalities and enucleation were done at an older age may represent unrecognized eye disease in owned pets or inadequate access to veterinary care in the case of stray animals.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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