September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Dilated Eye Examination among Multi-ethnic Preschool Children
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xuejuan Jiang
    USC Eye Institute/Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch
    Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States
    Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, United States
  • Susan A Cotter
    Southern California College of Optometry, at Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullterton, California, United States
  • Mina Torres
    USC Eye Institute/Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Rohit Varma
    USC Eye Institute/Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Xuejuan Jiang, None; Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch, None; Susan Cotter, None; Mina Torres, None; Rohit Varma, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NEI Grant 1R21EY025313-01, NEI grant nos. EY14472 and EY03040, and an unrestricted grant from the Research to Prevent Blindness, New York, NY. Dr. Varma is a Research to Prevent Blindness Sybil B. Harrington Scholar.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3095. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Xuejuan Jiang, Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch, Susan A Cotter, Mina Torres, Rohit Varma; Dilated Eye Examination among Multi-ethnic Preschool Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3095.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To identify the prevalence of and factors associated with having had a previous dilated eye exam among multiethnic preschool children.

Methods : Data were obtained from the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 9,197 African-American (AA), Hispanic (HW), Asian American (AS), and non-Hispanic white (NHW) children 6-72 months of age identified in Los Angeles. A parental interview and a detailed ocular exam were performed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate independent associations between dilated eye exam and demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors identified in the parental interview.

Results : The prevalence of dilated eye exam was 6.3% among preschool children overall, ranging from 2.8% in 6-12 month-old children to 11.6% in 61-72 month-old children. In children with strabismus, only 38% had a previous dilated eye exam. The prevalence of dilated eye exam in strabismic children varied significantly by subtype of strabismus (p<0.001): 54% for esotropia and 23% for exotropia. In 4+ year-old children with amblyopia, only 29% had a previous dilated eye exam. The prevalence of dilated eye exam seemed to vary by race/ethnicity: 8.1% for NHW children, 4.9% for HWs, 6.3% for AAs, and 7.9% for ASs. However, in multivariate analysis of demographic, behavioral and clinical factors obtained from parental interview, a higher prevalence of dilated eye exam was not associated with race/ethnicity, and was independently associated with older age, having a gestational age of <33 weeks, having Down syndrome, having cerebral palsy, a family history of strabismus, and having vision insurance coverage. In children with strabismus, dilated eye exam prevalence was 74% for NHW children, 36% for HWs, 25% for AAs, and 37% for ASs. This variation remained significant after adjusting for strabismus subtype and the risk factors identified in the overall analysis. There was no racial/ethnic disparity after adjustment for other predictors in 4+ year-old children with amblyopia.

Conclusions : Dilated eye exam was relatively rare among preschool children, even among those with ocular disorders such as amblyopia and strabismus, and was limited to a small subset of children with unique characteristics. Interventions are needed to provide broad access to preventive eye care and treatment for preschool children, including evidence-based vision screening/examinations.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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