September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
The heritability of implicit times of photopic flicker electroretinogram responses recorded using a handheld recording system with skin electrodes
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xining He
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, 162 City Road, London, EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom
  • Ekaterina Hristova Yonova
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College of London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
  • Diana Kozareva
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College of London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
  • Mohamed Katta
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
  • Christopher J Hammond
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College of London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
  • Omar Abdul Rahman Mahroo
    Department of Ophthalmology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, London, SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    Institute of Ophthalmology, University College of London, London, EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Xining He, None; Ekaterina Yonova, None; Diana Kozareva, None; Mohamed Katta, None; Christopher Hammond, None; Omar Mahroo, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Fight for Sight UK (Grant 1409/10); Fight for Sight UK & Birdshot Uveitis Society (24BU141); TwinsUK receives support from the Wellcome Trust and the NIHR BioResource Clinical Research Facility and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London; OAM is supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3589. doi:
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      Xining He, Ekaterina Hristova Yonova, Diana Kozareva, Mohamed Katta, Christopher J Hammond, Omar Abdul Rahman Mahroo; The heritability of implicit times of photopic flicker electroretinogram responses recorded using a handheld recording system with skin electrodes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3589.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to various parameters of retinal function are not known. Our group is exploring this by electroretinogram (ERG) recording in a large number of healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The 30 Hz photopic flicker ERG derives from cone-driven inner retinal activity. The implicit time can be a sensitive indicator of dysfunction in a range of disorders. Limited recordings from a subset of the cohort were made using the RETeval system (LKC Technologies, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA), a hand-held device for recording electroretinogram (ERG) responses with skin electrodes. We sought to quantify the genetic contribution to variance in photopic flicker implicit times, as recorded with this device.

Methods : Photopic 30 Hz flicker ERGs were recorded in healthy twins as part of a wider study. Pupils were undilated; stimuli were designed to deliver the same retinal illuminance as international standard stimuli. Where times from both eyes were available, these were averaged. Coefficients for intra-pair correlation were calculated for MZ and DZ twin ERG implicit times. Heritability was formally estimated using structural equation modelling.

Results : Recordings from 92 subjects (29 MZ and 17 DZ twin pairs) were analysed. Mean (SD) age was 53 (16) years. Mean (SD) implicit time was 25.5 (1.1) ms. Coefficients for intra-pair correlation were 0.77 and 0.35 for MZ and DZ twins respectively. Heritability was estimated to be 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.87).

Conclusions : The intra-pair correlation coefficient for MZ twins was double that for DZ twins, implying significant heritability. Our study estimates that approximately 77% of the variance in 30 Hz ERG implicit times may be attributable to genetic factors, indicating a substantial genetic influence. Also, as measurement error acts as an additional environmental variable that will reduce heritability estimates, the finding of substantial heritability in a sample of this size would suggest that, despite the use of skin electrodes, the measurement error in implicit times recorded with this device is relatively small.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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