September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
On the usefulness of Badal optometer to stimulate accommodation
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Mikel Aldaba
    Centre for Sensors, Instruments and Systems Development, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
    Davalor Research Center, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
  • Jaume Pujol
    Centre for Sensors, Instruments and Systems Development, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
    Davalor Research Center, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
  • Carles Otero
    Centre for Sensors, Instruments and Systems Development, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
    Davalor Research Center, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Mikel Aldaba, Davalor Salud (F), Generalitat de Catalunya (F), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (F); Jaume Pujol, Davalor Salud (F), Generalitat de Catalunya (F), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (F); Carles Otero, Davalor Salud (F), Generalitat de Catalunya (F), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (F)
  • Footnotes
    Support  This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under the grant DPI2014-56850-R, the European Union and by Davalor Salud, S.L. Carles Otero thanks the Generalitat de Catalunya for his awarded PhD studentship.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3957. doi:
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      Mikel Aldaba, Jaume Pujol, Carles Otero; On the usefulness of Badal optometer to stimulate accommodation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3957.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : to analyze the performance of the Badal optometer for monocular accommodative stimulation by comparison with stimulation by means of real space targets.

Methods : Accommodation was stimulated at 5.00 D by means of push-up method with an open-field real space target (configuration 1) and a closed-field Badal optometer with reduced field of view (2.5 degrees) and without depth cues (configuration 2). Moreover, 3 more configurations were used to isolate the effect of: stimulation method (real vs. Badal targets), field of view (2.5 vs. 15 degrees) and peripheral interposition of targets in depth (empty vs. depth cues). The accommodative response (AR) was measured with the WAM-5500 autorefractometer.

Results : 28 eyes of 28 subjects were included in the study, with a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 24.29 ± 2.12 years (18 to 27 years), monocular corrected visual acuity of -0.14 ± 0.06 logMAR (-0.20 to 0.02) and subjective amplitude of accommodation of 9.47 ± 1.91 D (7.14 to 15.38 D). The repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in the AR among configurations (p<0.05). The Bonferroni post-hoc tests comparing real (configuration 1) versus Badal optometer (configuration 2) showed a mean AR difference ± SD (p-value) of 0.58 ± 0.53 D (p<0.05). The AR difference due to the different variables was: stimulation method 0.11 ± 0.48 D (p=1.00), field of view 0.13 ± 0.43 D (p=1.00) and interposition of targets in depth 0.29 ± 0.36 D (p<0.05).

Conclusions : AR can differ significantly when stimulated by means of push-up method with open-field real space targets and a closed-field Badal optometer. However, our results suggest that stimulation method by itself is not enough to achieve significant differences. Other factors as field of view and the interposition of objects in depth play a role to explain these differences. In this sense, Badal optometers including larger fields of view and the interposition of objects in depth could improve the AR up to acceptable differences.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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