September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Counting Cones in the Presence of Rods: A Reliability Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Grace K. Han
    Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Robert F. Cooper
    Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Jessica C. Hsu
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Min Chen
    Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Joseph Carroll
    Cell Biology, Neurobiology, & Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    Ophthalmology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • Jessica Ijams Wolfing Morgan
    Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Grace Han, None; Robert Cooper, None; Jessica Hsu, None; Min Chen, None; Joseph Carroll, AGTC (F), OptoVue, Inc. (F); Jessica Morgan, Canon, Inc. (F), US Patent (P)
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH P30 EY001583; NIH U01EY025477; NIHP30EY001931; NIHR01EY017607 Foundation Fighting Blindness, Research to Prevent Blindness Stein Innovation Award, the F. M. Kirby Foundation, the Paul and Evanina Mackall Foundation Trust.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 4640. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Grace K. Han, Robert F. Cooper, Jessica C. Hsu, Min Chen, Joseph Carroll, Jessica Ijams Wolfing Morgan; Counting Cones in the Presence of Rods: A Reliability Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):4640.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) allows an in vivo assay of the arrangement of the photoreceptor mosaic. Recent advances in AOSLO imaging technology have enabled the visualization of the rod outer segments (OS), as well as the cone inner segments (IS). Understanding the reliability of these measurements is essential to quantifying longitudinal photoreceptor change. Here we examine the inter-observer reliability of identifying cone IS and cone OS in the presence of rod OS.

Methods : Five subjects (9 eyes) with no known pathology were imaged along the horizontal and vertical meridians using a custom AOSLO with both confocal and split detection modalities to visualize the cone and rod OS reflectance and cone IS mosaics, respectively. AOSLO images were semi-automatically montaged using a custom MATLAB algorithm. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected from the confocal montage at 190 μm, and from both split detection and confocal montages at 900 and 1800 μm from the fovea. Due to fixational error, one subject’s montage did not extend to 1800 μm in one meridian, resulting in a total of 178 ROIs. Four observers, ranging from completely naïve to expert, manually identified cone OS and IS using custom software. Cone density was extracted from each ROI, and intraclass correlation coefficients with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the inter-observer agreement.

Results : Inter-observer agreement was high in cone-only images (OS 190μm: 0.848, CI 0.764-0.911; IS 900μm: 0.908, CI 0.853-0.948; IS 1800μm: 0.889, CI 0.824-0.935), moderate in OS images at 900μm (0.683, CI 0.545-0.802) and poor in OS images at 1800μm (0.244, IC 0.085-0.440). Excluding the naïve observer’s cone density measurements substantially increased agreement within OS images (190μm: 0.991, CI 0.984-0.995; 900μm: 0.795, CI 0.678-0.881; 1800μm: 0.683, IC 0.521-0.811).

Conclusions : Inter-observer measurements of cone density, including those of expert observers, are more reliable in the absence of rod OS. This study underscores the need for additional reliability studies in eyes containing pathology where image quality can be substantially worse. Moreover, it is essential that observers are trained on cone selection, particularly when identifying photoreceptor OS in confocal AOSLO images.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.

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