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Abhilash Guduru, Teresa G. Martz, Alexa Waters, Abhijit V. Kshirsagar, Seema Garg; Oxygen Saturation of Retinal Vessels in All Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy and Correlation to Ultra-Wide Field Fluorescein Angiography. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(13):5278-5284. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-20190.
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The purpose of this study was to determine retinal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using retinal oximetry (RO) and to correlate the degree of retinal ischemia using intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA).
This is a single-center cross-sectional cohort study. Twenty-seven controls and 60 adult patients with diabetes mellitus (16 without DR and 44 with DR) were enrolled. Patients were stratified according to DR severity. Using RO, SO2 was measured in major retinal arterioles (SaO2) and venules (SvO2). Using IVFA, the percentage of retinal ischemia in 31 patients with DR was calculated and correlated with RO.
Pairwise one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant increase in SaO2 and SvO2 in patients with proliferative DR (PDR) compared with controls (SaO2: PDR, 100 ± 7% vs. controls, 91 ± 4% [P = 0.003]; SvO2: PDR, 66 ± 11% vs. controls, 53 ± 6% [P < 0.00001]). The percentage of retinal ischemia also increased with DR severity: ANOVA showed a significant difference in retinal ischemia between all categories of nonproliferative DR vs. PDR: 2.31 ± 2% vs. 7.92 ± 9% (P = 0.017), respectively. Pearson two-tailed correlation showed significant correlation between SaO2 and ischemia (R = 0.467, P = 0.011).
Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of retinal arterioles and venules increases with DR severity; SaO2 correlates with increasing ischemia measured by IVFA. Retinal oximetry may complement current imaging strategies to noninvasively augment the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with diabetes.
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