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Avi Caspi, Arup Roy, Jessy D. Dorn, Robert J. Greenberg; Retinotopic to Spatiotopic Mapping in Blind Patients Implanted With the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(1):119-127. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20398.
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To quantify the precision of mapping from retinotopic (retina-centered) to spatiotopic (world-centered) coordinates in blind humans implanted with a retinal prosthesis device. Additionally, to demonstrate that an eye tracker can be calibrated on sightless patients based on the percept from a visual implant.
We directly activated epiretinal electrodes to create retinotopic stimuli and recorded the location of the percept at world-based coordinates. In contrast to normal Argus II use where stimulation is a function of the captured scene's image, in this research we directly controlled the waveform in each electrode and measured the percept's location using a trackable handheld marker. For eye tracking, pupil images were recorded with a timestamp synchronized to the stimulation and marker positions.
Remapping of the measured world locations to the position of the electrodes on the retina is feasible by accounting for eye orientation at the onset of stimulation. Transformation of pupil images to the eye's orientation (i.e., eye tracker calibration) can be done by solving for the variables that minimize the spread of the remapped retinal electrode locations. After mapping to retinal coordinates based on eye positions, the measured precision of pointing was 2° to 3°, which is comparable to open-loop pointing in sighted individuals.
The brain accurately maps the artificial vision induced by a retinal prosthesis based on instantaneous gaze position. Remapping based on eye position is feasible and will increase visual stability in prosthetic vision.
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