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Han Woong Lim, Yumi Song, Ji Hong Kim, Yong Un Shin, Sun Jin Hwang, Sukwoo Hong; Normal Range of Eye Movement and Its Relationship to Age. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):747.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determinethe range of eye movement in normal human subjects and to investigate the effect of age on eye movement.
A prospective observational study. We enrolled 261 healthy subjects, 5 to 91 years of age. Photographs were obtained in the cardinal gaze positions and processed using Photoshop. The processed images were analyzed using the Image J program to measure the angle of eye movement.The angle of eye movement was quantified using a modified limbus test.
The normal ranges of eye movement were 44.9±7.2° in adduction, 44.2±6.8° in adduction, 27.9±7.6° in elevation, and 47.1±8.0° in depression. There were significant negative correlations between the angles of horizontal and upward gazes and age (R=-0.294 in adduction, R=-0.355 in abduction, and R=-0.506 in elevation, all P<0.001). However, the angle of downward gaze was not significantly correlated with age (R=0.017, P=0.722).
The normal ranges for the angle of horizontal gaze were symmetric, whereas therange of upward gaze angle was smaller than that for the downward gaze among all ages. Unlike the age-related decline of range in other gazes, only downward gaze was not impaired by increasing age. Differencesineye-movement range based ongaze direction and their associated aging mechanisms should be considered when assessing eye movements.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
Composite photographs were obtained in the 5 cardinal positions of gaze. The subject visually tracked the fixation target by shifting into maximum upward, downward, left, and right gazes.(A) Semitransparent image was overlapped with the primary position image.(B) The overlapping image was converted to identify the margin of the limbus.(C)
Graph showing the age-dependent changes in eye movements for each direction. The ranges forthe horizontal gazes (adduction and abduction) decreased with advancing age, and the ranges for upward gaze decreased more rapidly than those for the horizontal gaze. On the other hand, there was no associationbetween the range of downward gaze and age.
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