June 2017
Volume 58, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2017
The Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS3): 15 Years Incidence of Blindness and Visual Impairment
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rohit Chandramohan Khanna
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
    Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Srinivas Marmamula
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
    Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Asha Latha Mettla
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Pyda Giridhar
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Seema Banerjee
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Shekhar Konegari
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Subhabrata Chakrabarti
    Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Gudlavalleti V S Murthy
    International Centre for Eye Health, Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, India
  • Clare Gilbert
    International Centre for Eye Health, Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Gullapalli N Rao
    Allen Foster Research Centre for Community Eye Health, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
    Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Rohit Khanna, None; Srinivas Marmamula, None; Asha Latha Mettla, None; Pyda Giridhar, None; Seema Banerjee, None; Shekhar Konegari , None; Subhabrata Chakrabarti, None; Gudlavalleti V S Murthy, None; Clare Gilbert, None; Gullapalli Rao, None
  • Footnotes
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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2017, Vol.58, 835. doi:
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      Rohit Chandramohan Khanna, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha Latha Mettla, Pyda Giridhar, Seema Banerjee, Shekhar Konegari, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Gudlavalleti V S Murthy, Clare Gilbert, Gullapalli N Rao; The Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS3): 15 Years Incidence of Blindness and Visual Impairment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):835.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 (APEDS3) is a 15 year follow up cohort of the participant seen in the initial Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS1). The study included participants from all age group. APEDS1 was conducted from 1996-2000 and APEDS3 was conducted from 2012-2016 in three rural areas of APEDS1. At the baseline, there were 7771 participants examined in rural areas and at APEDS3, 1,316 (16.9%) had died. Of the remaining, 5398 (83.6%) were examined. In this study, we report the overall incidence of blindness and visual impairment (VI) and associated risk factors for VI for those 30 years and above at baseline.

Methods : In APEDS3, a detailed interview was done and all participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including photography and diagnostic tests. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was measured using a standard logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart at a distance of 3 meters. Unaided, presenting, pinhole and best-corrected visual acuity were also recorded. Incident VI was defined based on PVA in better eye. It was classified as mild (PVA < 6/12-6/18), moderate (PVA <6/18-6/60), severe (PVA <6/60-3/60) and blind (<3/60).

Results : Based on PVA, 15 year overall incidence of any VI was 24.2% (95% CI: 23-25.4). Incidence of mild VI was 10.1% (95% CI: 9.2-11.1), moderate VI was 13.7% (95% CI: 12.7-14.8), severe VI was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.7-2.6) and blindness was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2). Improvement in at least one line was seen in 4.6% (95% CI: 26.1-33.1). Baseline risk factors for incident VI were increasing age {40-49 years (OR: 2.6 95% CI: 2.0-3.3), 50-59 years (OR: 2.6 95% CI: 1.9-3.4), 60-69 years (OR: 2.6 95% CI: 1.8-3.4) and for those 70 years and above (OR: 2.4 95% CI: 0.8-7.2)}. Other risk factors were female gender (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1), hypertension (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4), current smoker (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1) and alcohol consumption (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.7).

Conclusions : Overall, the incidence of VI is quiet high in Indian population and this need to be taken into account while planning eye care program strategies.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.

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