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Stephanie M Llop, Samaneh Davoudi, Lindsay Grotting, Lisa Tom, George Papaliodis, Lucia Sobrin; Low vitamin D is associated with different types of ocular inflammation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):845.
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Vitamin D plays an immunoregulatory role. Low vitamin D status has been associated with some autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada and anterior uveitis. Our aim is to determine whether there is any association between vitamin D levels and different types of autoimmune ocular inflammation including scleritis, posterior, intermediate, anterior and panuveitis.
61 patients (31% male, mean age 48 years) and 90 controls (26.6% male, mean age 51 years) were enrolled. Fellowship-trained specialists diagnosed patients with scleritis, posterior, intermediate, anterior and panuveitis after exclusion of infectious and neoplastic causes. Controls were patients without any history of eye inflammation. All subjects had a recorded total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D measured by mass spectroscopy or immunoassay. Clinical and demographic information was recorded from patients’ medical records including age, gender, race, smoking status, history of vitamin D supplements and vitamin D draw date. Logistic regression models were created to examine the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of ocular inflammation using Stata (College Station, TX). In a subanalysis, we also examined vitamin D as a continuous variable. Age, gender and race were included in all multivariate models.
Smoking status, history of vitamin D supplements and vitamin D draw date were not statistically different between two groups. Vitamin D level means and standard deviations were 33 ± 12.6 and 24.4 ± 11.7 nanograms per milliliter in controls and cases, respectively. The odds of having ocular inflammation was 2.4 higher in patients with low vitamin D status compared with normal vitamin D level in univariate analysis [(odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.24-4.73, P = 0.009)]. The association persisted in multivariate regression, after adjusting for age, gender and race (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.30-5.63, P = 0.008). The odds of developing ocular inflammation was 7% lower for every unit increase in vitamin D level (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.89-0.98, P = 0.005) in multivariate regression.
Hypovitaminosis D was associated with increased risk of ocular inflammation in this retrospective study. This data adds to the increasing body of knowledge showing that vitamin D may play a role in autoimmune diseases.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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