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Gillian C Shaw, Richard R Dubielzig, Leandro B C Teixeira; Ocular manifestations of hyperviscosity syndrome in dogs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):1782.
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We performed a retrospective study to characterize the clinical and pathological details of a case series of canine globes diagnosed with hyperviscosity syndrome.
The Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) database was mined for canine cases of hyperviscosity syndrome. Case histories, clinical presentations and gross and histopathological lesions were reviewed and summarized.
There were nine cases of hyperviscosity syndrome in the COPLOW collection. The average age at enucleation was 8.8 years (range 4-15) and there were 3 females and 6 males of varying breeds. Relevant clinical histories included hyperproteinemia (5/9), hyperglobulinemia (5/9), anemia (5/9) and suspicion or diagnosis of multiple myeloma (4/9). Common relevant gross findings were a solid gelatinous vitreous with intraocular hemorrhage and retinal detachment. All nine cases had the following relevant histopathological lesions: intraocular hemorrhage, dense PAS-positive proteinaceous exudate within ocular chambers and choroidal blood vessel lumens, ischemic uveal necrosis and retinal detachment. None of the nine cases had vascular lesions to explain protein and red blood cell exudation.
Hyperviscosity syndrome is the constellation of maladies associated with either increased red or white blood cell mass, protein content or both and it accompanies various conditions in both human and canine patients. It causes systemic disturbances in blood flow, which can lead to thrombosis and bleeding tendencies. Ocular manifestations in human patients include retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, edema and/or detachments and are sometimes the first indication the patient is affected. The findings of intraocular hemorrhage and dense proteinaceous exudate, ischemic uveal necrosis and retinal detachment in canine globes coupled with the clinical history of hyperproteinemia and/or a suspicion or diagnosis of multiple myeloma support the diagnosis of ocular manifestation of hyperviscosity syndrome.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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