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Dayna S Dalton, Carla Schubert, Aaron Alex Pinto, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Adam J Paulsen, Karen J Cruickshanks; Vitamin D and Vision. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):2208.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Vitamin D is essential for good health and low levels have been associated with a number of problems with aging. Visual function declines with age but few studies have looked at the relationship between low vitamin D and visual acuity (VA) or contrast sensitivity (CS). We investigated the association between vitamin D and VA and CS in the baseline examination of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS; 2005-2008), a large cohort study of sensory health and aging.
While wearing trial frames containing best correction as determined by a Grand Seiko auto-refractor, VA was measured using ETDRS LogMAR charts and CS was measured with Pelli-Robson charts following standardized protocols. VA was evaluated as total number of letters correctly identified. CS was evaluated continuously (number of triplets identified) and categorically (impaired (<1.55 log triplets) vs. not impaired). Serum samples obtained at baseline and stored at -80° C were analyzed in 2015 for total vitamin D and vitamin D3. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between low vitamin D and D3, defined as the lowest quintile (Q1 <23.3 ng/ml or < 19.3 ng/mL, respectively, compared to Q5 > 39.83 ng/ml or > 36.21 ng/ml respectively) and CS and VA.
There were 2392 participants aged 21-84 (average 49) years with vitamin D and vision measures. Adjusting for age and sex, participants with low total vitamin D identified significantly fewer CS triplets correctly (β -0.09 log triplets; p=0.04 Q1 vs. Q5). However, this association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and exercise or after further adjustment for supplement use or outdoor occupation. There was no association between total vitamin D and CS impairment or VA in either age- and sex-adjusted or multivariable models or between vitamin D3 and VA and CS.
In this middle-aged cohort with good vision, low vitamin D levels were not associated with visual function measures.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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