June 2017
Volume 58, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2017
Estimated global productivity loss from myopia
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Kovin Shunmugam Naidoo
    Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    African Vision Research Institute, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  • Tim R Fricke
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • Padmaja Sankaridurg
    Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • Thomas Naduvilath
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • Serge Resnikoff
    Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • Kevin D Frick
    John Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Kovin Naidoo, Brien Holden Vision Institute (E); Tim Fricke, Brien Holden Vision Institute (C); Padmaja Sankaridurg, Brien Holden Vision Institute (E); Thomas Naduvilath, Brien Holden Vision Institute (E); Serge Resnikoff, Brien Holden Vision Institute (C); Kevin Frick, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Brien Holden Vision Institute
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2017, Vol.58, 2404. doi:
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      Kovin Shunmugam Naidoo, Tim R Fricke, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Thomas Naduvilath, Serge Resnikoff, Kevin D Frick; Estimated global productivity loss from myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):2404.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To estimate the global economic productivity lost to visual impairment (VI) associated with myopia in 2015.

Methods : We estimated the productivity loss associated with VI from uncorrected myopia and myopic macular degeneration (MMD) based on published population, epidemiologic and economic data. Data included the age-, urban/rural- and country-specific prevalence of myopia, spectacle coverage and VI from MMD; distance VI disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2015; country-level per capita gross domestic product, employment rates, and age-specific labor force participation. We included an estimate of the provision of informal care by normally-sighted individuals. Results were aggregated by country, GBD region and globally.


Results :
We estimated that in 2015 there were 201, 857, 463 and 515 million people globally with myopia that would cause mild VI (≤-0.75D but >-1.00D), moderate VI (≤-1.00D but >-2.50D), severe VI (≤-2.50D but >-4.00D) or blindness (≤-4.00D) respectively if uncorrected. Published country-level spectacle coverage rates were best modelled using the natural log of health expenditure per capita and adult literacy rates, and varied between urban and rural and across age groups. We estimated that in 2015 there were 82, 344, 187 and 211 million people globally with uncorrected myopia causing mild VI, moderate VI, severe VI and blindness respectively, and that there were 5.5 and 4.8 million people globally with moderate-severe VI and blindness respectively caused by MMD. The global economic productivity loss associated with the burden of VI from uncorrected myopia was estimated at US$389.5 billion (95% confidence interval US$142.0 billion – US$960.9 billion), including US$27.2 billion (US$10.0 – 66.0 billion) in informal carer costs. The global economic productivity loss associated with the burden of VI from MMD was estimated at US$3.0 billion (US$1.1 – 10.3 billion), including US$0.2 billion (US$0.1 – 0.8 billion) in informal carer costs. Combined, these add to US$392.4 billion (US$143.0 – 970.8 billion), including US$27.4 billion ($US10.0 – 66.4 billion) in informal carer costs.

Conclusions : Even under conservative assumptions, the estimated annual productivity loss associated with VI from uncorrected myopia and MMD averages to US$470/case, providing an economic argument for prevention and management via refractive care, myopia control and vitreo-retinal services.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.

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