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Barbara M Junghans, Jenny Guo, Rebecca WL So, Sieu Khuu; Population Norms for the Lee-Ryan Eye Hand Coordination App. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):5427.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Current eye-hand coordination (EHC) tests range from simple grasp-and-place to complex electronic surveillance. All involve gross whole arm movements in 3-D space. The new Lee-Ryan EHC Test analyses EHC within 2-D space and provides an objective, portable, low cost option to understand this complex multi-sensory task. As for all ther EHC tests, population norms for the Lee-Ryan EHC Test are unknown. This project sought to establish age-related performance norms.
The 20 plate L-R EHC Test for Apple iPad® was administered using a stylus pen to subjects seated at a desk viewing binocularly through their habitual near correction. The warning sound option was activated to alert when a mistake had been made. The first trace was a ‘learning’ plate common to all. Order of presentation of the remaining 19 was randomized. Output data in csv format included time taken for each trace, spatial accuracy of stylus placement and total errors made, and was emailed from the iPad. Using a counterbalanced approach, a subset of 16 subjects also completed the test using a finger instead of the stylus.
A total of 73 adults (range=18-88 years, mean=41.4±21.0) and 10 children (range=3-12 years, mean=8.2±2.8) undertook the EHC test. Age and shape complexity significantly affected time taken, average number of errors and average deviation from the straw (p<0.01). Those under 10 years of age showed an increase (p<0.01) in time taken, number of errors made and average deviation compared to participants between the ages of 10 to 70 who showed performance that remained constant. Those greater than 70 years of age showed a significant (p<0.01) deterioration in performance. Performance when using the finger took significantly longer (p<0.001) and was significantly less accurate (p<0.01) than with a stylus. Females (n=46) were significantly (p=0.005) more accurate when tracing.
The L-R EHC Test is well-accepted across all ages and performance was found to be age-related. The population norms thus established will support clinical and research settings for optometrists, psychologists, neurologists, rehabilitation specialists and remedial educationalists. The L-R EHC Test can provide a rapid and simple objective measure of EHC of pre/post-intervention status in those affected by conditions such as amblyopia, post-traumatic brain injury or developmental delay as the performance correlations between the 20 plates has now been established.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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