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Jonathan Aboshiha, Neruban Kumaran, Angelos Kalitzeos, Chris Hogg, Gary Rubin, Michel Michaelides; A Quantitative and Qualitative Exploration of Photoaversion in Achromatopsia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(9):3537-3546. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-21935.
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Photoaversion (PA) is a disabling and ubiquitous feature of achromatopsia (ACHM). We aimed to help define the characteristics of this important symptom, and present the first published assessment of its impact on patients' lives, as well as quantitative and qualitative PA assessments.
Molecularly confirmed ACHM subjects were assessed for PA using four tasks: structured survey of patient experience, novel quantitative subjective measurement of PA, visual acuities in differing ambient lighting, and objective palpebral aperture-related PA testing.
Photoaversion in ACHM was found to be the most significant symptom for a substantial proportion (38%) of patients. A novel subjective PA measurement technique was developed and demonstrated fidelity with more invasive paradigms without exposing often very photosensitive patients to brighter light intensities used elsewhere. An objective PA measurement was also refined for use in trials, indicating that higher light intensities than previously published are likely to be needed. Monocular testing, as required for trials, was also validated for the first time.
This study offers new insights into PA in ACHM. It provides the first structured evidence of the great significance of this symptom to patients, suggesting that PA should be considered as an additional outcome measure in therapeutic trials. It also offers new insights into the characteristics of PA in ACHM, and describes both subjective and objective measures of PA that could be employed in clinical trials.
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