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Mark J. Kupersmith, Patrick A. Sibony, Sarita Dave; Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Induced Retinal Folds and Deformations. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(10):4286-4291. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-22140.
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We hypothesized that the edema/swelling in the retina due to acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) can induce retinal folds (RF). We determined the pattern and frequency of folds in NAION at presentation and in follow-up, and the relationship between folds and a number of functional and structural parameters over time.
We prospectively studied eyes with acute NAION by spectral-domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used transaxial and en face views to evaluate the presence of peripapillary fluid (PPF), peripapillary wrinkles (PPW), RF, choroidal folds (CF), creases, macular edema, and vitreous traction on the optic disc. Retinal deformations were correlated with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, logMAR visual acuity (VA) and mean deviation (MD).
At presentation, 60 eyes had mean RNFL = 224 ± 75 μm, no vitreous traction, and similar VA and MD regardless of the retinal deformation or macular edema. There was PPF in 73%, PPW in 57%, RF in 38%, creases in 20%, and macular edema in 18% of eyes, and no CF. Eyes with retinal deformations had significantly greater RNFL thickness (P < 0.026). At 1 to 2 months, 49 eyes had reduction of the RNFL (112 ± 40 μm, P = 0.001) and unchanged VA and MD that did not correlate with fewer eyes having PPF (15%, P = 0.001), PPW (10%, P = 0.001), RF (10%, P = 0.001), creases (17%), and macular edema (0%, P = 0.007).
RF in NAION reflect stresses and strains due to extracellular fluid without increased pressure in the retrolaminar tissue and subarachnoid space, seen with papilledema. In NAION, the deformations and their resolution do not correlate with vision loss.
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