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Norman P. Blair, Justin Wanek, Anthony E. Felder, Charlotte E. Joslin, Jacob K. Kresovich, Jennifer I. Lim, Felix Y. Chau, Yannek Leiderman, Mahnaz Shahidi; Retinal Oximetry and Vessel Diameter Measurements With a Commercially Available Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(12):5556-5563. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-21934.
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To test the hypothesis that retinal vascular diameter and hemoglobin oxygen saturation alterations, according to stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), are discernible with a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO).
One hundred eighty-one subjects with no diabetes (No DM), diabetes with no DR (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR, all had photocoagulation) underwent imaging with an SLO with dual lasers (532 nm and 633 nm). Customized image analysis software determined the diameters of retinal arteries and veins (DA and DV) and central retinal artery and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Oxygen saturations of hemoglobin in arteries and veins (SO2A and SO2V) were estimated from optical densities of vessels on images at the two wavelengths. Statistical models were generated by adjusting for effects of sex, race, age, eye, and fundus pigmentation.
DA, CRAE, and CRVE were reduced in PDR compared to No DM (P ≤ 0.03). DV and CRVE were similar between No DM and No DR, but they were higher in NPDR than No DR (P ≤ 0.01). Effect of stage of disease on SO2A differed by race, being increased relative to No DM in NPDR and PDR in Hispanic participants only (P ≤ 0.02). Relative to No DM, SO2V was increased in NPDR and PDR (P ≤ 0.05).
Alterations in retinal vascular diameters and SO2 by diabetic retinopathy stage can be detected with a widely available SLO, and covariates such as race can influence the results.
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