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Yelena Bykhovskaya, Majid Fardaei, Mariam Lotfy Khaled, Mahmood Nejabat, Ramin Salouti, Hassan Dastsooz, Yutao Liu, Soroor Inaloo, Yaron S. Rabinowitz; TSC1 Mutations in Keratoconus Patients With or Without Tuberous Sclerosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(14):6462-6469. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-22819.
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To test candidate genes TSC1 and TSC2 in a family affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) where proband was also diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus (KC) and to test the hypothesis that defects in the same gene may lead to a nonsyndromic KC.
Next-generation sequencing of TSC1 and TSC2 genes was performed in a proband affected by TSC and KC. Identified mutation was confirmed by Sanger DNA sequencing. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in patients with nonsyndromic KC. Sanger DNA sequencing was used to confirm WES results and to screen additional patients. RT-PCR was used to investigate TSC1 expression in seven normal human corneas and eight corneas from patients with KC. Various in silico tools were employed to model functional consequences of identified mutations.
A heterozygous nonsense TSC1 mutation g.132902703C>T (c.2293C>T, p.Gln765Ter) was identified in a patient with TSC and KC. Two heterozygous missense TSC1 variants g.132896322A>T (c.3408A>T, p.Asp1136Glu) and g.132896452G>A (c.3278G>A, p.Arg1093Gln) were identified in three patients with nonsyndromic KC. Two mutations were not present in The Genome Aggregation (GnomAD), The Exome Aggregation (ExAC), and 1000 Genomes (1000G) databases, while the third one was present in GnomAD and 1000G with minor allele frequencies (MAF) of 0.00001 and 0.0002, respectively. We found TSC1 expressed in normal corneas and KC corneas, albeit with various levels.
Here for the first time we found TSC1 gene to be involved in bilateral KC and TSC as well as with nonsyndromic KC, supporting the hypothesis that diverse germline mutations of the same gene can cause genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features.
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