Purchase this article with an account.
Ajay Ashok, Suman Chaudhary, Alexander E. Kritikos, Min H. Kang, Dallas McDonald, Douglas J. Rhee, Neena Singh; TGFβ2-Hepcidin Feed-Forward Loop in the Trabecular Meshwork Implicates Iron in Glaucomatous Pathology. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(3):24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.3.24.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Elevated levels of transforming-growth-factor (TGF)-β2 in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and aqueous humor are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The underlying mechanism includes alteration of extracellular matrix homeostasis through Smad-dependent and independent signaling. Smad4, an essential co-Smad, upregulates hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Here, we explored whether TGF-β2 upregulates hepcidin, implicating iron in the pathogenesis of POAG.
Primary human TM cells and human and bovine ex vivo anterior segment organ cultures were exposed to bioactive TGF-β2, hepcidin, heparin (a hepcidin antagonist), or N-acetyl carnosine (an antioxidant), and the change in the expression of hepcidin, ferroportin, ferritin, and TGF-β2 was evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantified with dihydroethidium, an ROS-sensitive dye.
Primary human TM cells and bovine TM tissue synthesize hepcidin locally, which is upregulated by bioactive TGF-β2. Hepcidin downregulates ferroportin, its downstream target, increasing ferritin and iron-catalyzed ROS. This causes reciprocal upregulation of TGF-β2 at the transcriptional and translational levels. Heparin downregulates hepcidin, and reduces TGF-β2-mediated increase in ferritin and ROS. Notably, both heparin and N-acetyl carnosine reduce TGF-β2-mediated reciprocal upregulation of TGF-β2.
The above observations suggest that TGF-β2 and hepcidin form a self-sustained feed-forward loop through iron-catalyzed ROS. This loop is partially disrupted by a hepcidin antagonist and an anti-oxidant, implicating iron and ROS in TGF-β2-mediated POAG. We propose that modification of currently available hepcidin antagonists for ocular use may prove beneficial for the therapeutic management of TGF-β2-associated POAG.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only