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Xin Xia, Melissa Atkins, Roopa Dalal, Olga Kuzmenko, Kun-Che Chang, Catalina B. Sun, C. Andres Benatti, Dillon J. Rak, Michael Nahmou, Noelia J. Kunzevitzky, Jeffrey L. Goldberg; Magnetic Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Transplant: Delivery, Retention, and Short-Term Efficacy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019;60(7):2438-2448. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-26001.
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Corneal endothelial dysfunction leads to corneal edema, pain, and vision loss. Adequate animal models are needed to study the safety and efficacy of novel cell therapies as an alternative to corneal transplantation.
Primary human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) were isolated from cadaveric donor corneas, expanded in vitro, transduced to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), loaded with superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and injected into the anterior chamber of adult rabbits immediately after endothelial cell or Descemet's membrane stripping. The same volume of balanced salt solution plus (BSS+) was injected in control eyes. We compared different models for inducing corneal edema in rabbits, and examined the ability of transplanted HCECs to reduce corneal edema over time by measuring central corneal thickness and tracking corneal clarity. GFP-positive donor cells were tracked in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) fluorescence angiography module, and the transplanted cells were confirmed by human nuclei immunostaining.
Magnetic HCECs integrated onto the recipient corneas with intact Descemet's membrane, and donor identity was confirmed by GFP expression and immunostaining for human nuclei marker. Donor HCECs formed a monolayer on the posterior corneal surface and expressed HCEC functional markers of tight junction formation. No GFP-positive cells were observed in the trabecular meshwork or on the iris, and intraocular pressure remained stable through the length of the study.
Our results demonstrate magnetic cell-based therapy efficiently delivers HCECs to restore corneal transparency without detectable toxicity or adverse effect on intraocular pressure. Magnetic delivery of HCECs may enhance corneal function and should be explored further for human therapies.
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