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Christine F. Wildsoet, Peter J. Oswald, Simon Clark; Albinism: Its Implications for Refractive Development. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(1):1-7.
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purpose. Albinism involves the mutation of one or more of the genes associated
with melanin synthesis and has many ramifications for vision. This
study focuses on the refractive implications of albinism in the context
methods. Refractive, biometric, and visual acuity data were collected for a
group of 25 albino individuals that included the following: 18
oculocutaneous (13 tyrosine positive, 5 tyrosine negative); 7 ocular (2
autosomal recessive, 5 sex-linked recessive). Their age range was 3 to
51 years. All exhibited horizontal pendular nystagmus.
results. There were no statistically significant differences relating to albino
subtype for any of the measured parameters. All the subjects had
reduced visual acuity (mean: 0.90, logMAR) and overall, there was a
bias toward hyperopia in their refractive errors (mean: +1.07 D).
However the refractive errors of the group covered a broad range (SD:
4.67 D) and included both high myopia and high hyperopia. An axial
origin to the refractive errors is implied by the high correlation
between refractive errors and axial lengths. Refractive astigmatism
averaged 2.37 D and was consistently with-the-rule and highly
correlated with corneal astigmatism, which was also with-the-rule.
Meridional analysis of the refractive data indicated that the vertical
meridian for hyperopic subjects was consistently nearer emmetropia
compared to their horizontal meridian. Myopic subjects showed the
conclusions. The overall refractive profile of the subjects is consistent with
emmetropization being impaired in albinism. However, the refractive
errors of hyperopic subjects also can be explained in terms of“
meridional emmetropization.” The contrasting refractive profiles
of myopic subjects may reflect operational constraints of the
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