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Marita P. Feldkaemper, Hong-Yan Wang, Frank Schaeffel; Changes in Retinal and Choroidal Gene Expression during Development of Refractive Errors in Chicks. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(7):1623-1628.
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purpose. During growth, the retina analyzes the projected image to achieve a
close match between eye length and focal length. Because the messengers
released by retina and choroid are largely unknown, genes that are
differently expressed in response to changes in the retinal image were
identified. In addition, because glucagon may be important in the
visual control of eye growth, the transcript levels of proglucagon were
methods. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction differential display
was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in chick
eyes that were deprived of sharp vision or treated with positive or
negative lenses. Differences were analyzed through sequencing and
database searches and confirmed by Northern blot analyses.
results. Combining 40 and 33 arbitrary primers with 3 oligo-dT-primers,
approximately 48% and 40% of the retinal and choroidal mRNAs were
screened, respectively. Twelve differences were detected in retinal
tissue and five in choroidal tissue after 6 to 24 hours of exposure to
defocus. Only one of 10 sequenced products could be identified as
cytochrome-c oxidase, subunit I. Northern blot analysis
confirmed its twofold upregulation after positive lens wear and also
changes in four other unknown genes. Finally, it was shown that retinal
glucagon mRNA content increased after treatment with positive lenses.
conclusions. Visual conditions that induce refractive errors produce changes in gene
expression in retina and choroid within 1 day. In line with previous
immunohistochemical data, it was found that the amount of glucagon mRNA
was upregulated during wearing of positive
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