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Paula Summanen, Satu Kivitie-Kallio, Reijo Norio, Christina Raitta, Tero Kivelä; Mechanisms of Myopia in Cohen Syndrome Mapped to Chromosome 8q22. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(5):1686-1693.
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purpose. To analyze the mechanisms of myopia in Cohen syndrome (Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] no. 216550).
methods. A cross-sectional study of 22 Finnish patients (age range, 2–57 years) with Cohen syndrome, which maps to chromosome 8q22, was undertaken to record cycloplegic refraction, keratometry (corneal power and radius of curvature), biometry (anterior chamber depth [ACD], lens thickness [LT], axial [AL] and vitreal length [VL]), and Hoffer Q-modeled lens power. These components of refraction were correlated to age and spherical equivalent (SE) at the corneal plane. Contribution to total myopia of refractive (corneal and lenticular) and axial components was modeled by multiple linear regression and by estimating the effect of deviation from population mean values.
results. The mean SE in patients with Cohen syndrome older than 10 years was −9.35 D; the mean cylinder power, +1.70 D; and the mean anisometropia, 0.53 D. Relative to the emmetropic eye of a young adult, the AL and VL (mean, 23.9 and 16.6 mm, respectively) and lens power (mean, 30.30 D) were higher in 74% and 93% of patients, respectively, and the ACD (mean, 2.5 mm) was smaller and the LT (mean, 4.9 mm) and corneal power (mean, 45.63 D) higher than average in all patients. Corneal power (r = 0.513, P = 0.021) increased with age, but AL and VL (P = 0.46 and 0.54, respectively) and lens power (P = 0.89) did not correlate with age. The lens power decreased with AL (r = −0.564, P = 0.029) and tended to increase with corneal power (r = 0.475, P = 0.074). Multiple linear regression identified AL and corneal power as independent predictors of SE. Based on deviation from population means, the lens power explained 55%, corneal power 23%, and AL 22% of total myopia. ACD decreased and LT increased markedly with age, rendering angle-closure glaucoma a possibility.
conclusions. Myopia in Cohen syndrome is mainly refractive in type and is due to high corneal and lenticular power, which is otherwise rare in young patients. It may be superimposed on axial myopia, probably related to polygenic factors that determine myopia in the general population. The refractive myopia in Cohen syndrome may result from dysgenesis and atrophy of the cornea, ciliary body, and iris, which in turn cause iridial and zonular laxity and spherophakia.
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