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Ralf R. Buhrmann, Harry A. Quigley, Yolanda Barron, Sheila K. West, Matthew S. Oliva, Boliface B. O. Mmbaga; Prevalence of Glaucoma in a Rural East African Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(1):40-48. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
purpose. To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an adult population in rural
methods. Six villages were randomly selected from eligible villages in the
Kongwa district, and all residents more than 40 years of age were
enumerated and invited to a comprehensive eye examination including
presenting visual acuity, refraction, automated 40-point Dicon (San
Diego, CA) suprathreshold screening field test, Tono-Pen (Bio-Rad,
Inc., Boston, MA) intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and
standardized examination by an ophthalmologist of anterior segment,
optic nerve head, and retina after pupil dilation. Gonioscopy and
Glaucoma-Scope (Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, CA) optic disc
imaging were performed on those with IOP higher than 23 mm Hg and
cup-to-disc ratio (c/d) more than 0.6 and on a 20% random sample of
results. Of 3641 eligible persons, 3268 (90%) underwent ophthalmic examination.
The prevalence of glaucoma of all types was 4.16% (95% confidence
interval [CI] = 3.5, 4.9%). Primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was
diagnosed in 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5, 3.8%), primary angle-closure
glaucoma (ACG) in 0.59% (95% CI = 0.35, 0.91%), and other forms
of glaucoma in 0.49%. The prevalence of glaucoma was found to be
sensitive to changes in the diagnostic criteria.
conclusions. The high prevalence of OAG in this group was similar to that of
African-derived persons in the United States but less than in
African-Caribbean populations. ACG was more prevalent in east Africans
than suggested by anecdotal reports.
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